failure of the second republic spain

[68], "Spanish Republic" redirects here. The Second Spanish Republic 1931-39: Historical Overview. The Left were both physically and handicapped due to unpopular reform which meant it was more difficult for it to uphold democracy during the civil war. But the built-up of strain and pressure played the main part in covering up the Republic's accomplishments and made its failure inevitable. This way the republican government of Manuel Azaña initiated numerous reforms to what in their view would "modernize" the country.[2]. The Second Republic in Spain lasted from 1931 to 1939. The government headed by Manuel Azaña undertook deep reforms to modernise Spain and stabilize the Republican regime. The fact that it had utterly failed made no impression on the ardent radical revolutionaries. Already have an account? As a result, an estimated total of half a million people would lose their lives in the war that followed; the number of casualties is actually disputed as some have suggested as many as a million people died. Spain-Barcelona for information on the Second Republic in Spanish History, its dates and important historical events. [9] The right had firmly believed, at all levels, that they would win. The Republican government survived in exile, and retained an embassy in Mexico City until 1976. Three days later (17 July), the coup d'état began more or less as it had been planned, with an army uprising in Spanish Morocco, which then spread to several regions of the country. The Second Republic was formed on April 14, 1931 after local elections returned anti-monarchist representatives in most cities and large towns. During the Spanish Civil War, there were three governments. [39], In the thirty-six hours following the election, sixteen people were killed (mostly by police officers attempting to maintain order or intervene in violent clashes) and thirty-nine were seriously injured, while fifty churches and seventy conservative political centres were attacked or set ablaze. It is obvious that the Republic entered at a very difficult time, and thus it is probably unfair to call it a complete failure since it did attempt to establish some reforms. The Popular Front won the 1936 general election with a narrow victory. With Spanish territory increasingly falling into Nationalist hands, the Republic's tenuous existence was further threatened by economic bankruptcy and sheer physical starvation. The Spanish Republic and commonly known as the Second Spanish Republic to distinguish it from the previous and short-lived First Spanish Republic (1873–1874), was the democratic republican administration that existed in Spain from 1931 to 1939. [24], The legislative branch was changed to a single chamber called the Congress of Deputies. The Spanish Second Republic Read this doc on Scribd: Causes of the Spanish Civil War Worksheet to accompany the interactive unit at www.activehistory.co.uk / 1 1931-1936: Why did the Spanish Second Republic Fail? A propósito del libro 1936. Its controversial articles 26 and 27 imposed stringent controls on Church property and barred religious orders from the ranks of educators. Log in now! • Nevertheless, five years later the country plunged itself into a gory civil war. The north, including the Basque country, fell in late 1937, and the Aragon front collapsed shortly afterward. However Azana firmly believed that by separating Church from the government and education he could ameliorate Spain's backwardness, and thus he continued. The Republican Constitution also changed the country's national symbols. [20], The new constitution established freedom of speech and freedom of association, extended suffrage to women in 1933, allowed divorce, and stripped the Spanish nobility of any special legal status. Home rule was granted to Catalonia, with a local parliament and a president of its own. Stanley Payne brings his immense knowledge of Spanish history to bear on the five-year span of the Second Republic as a historic entity in its own right. This ban was forced with strict police severity and widespread mob violence. For Spain from 1873 to 1874, see. [52] However, the kidnapping and murder of Sotelo transformed the "limping conspiracy" into a revolt that could trigger a civil war. The Republicans managed to hold out in Madrid, despite a Nationalist assault in November 1936, and frustrated subsequent offensives against the capital at Jarama and Guadalajara in 1937. The 1931 Constitution would be suspended, replaced by a new "constituent parliament" which would be chosen by a new politically purged electorate, who would vote on the issue of republic versus monarchy. The murder of a parliamentary leader by state police was unprecedented, and the belief that the state had ceased to be neutral and effective in its duties encouraged important sectors of the right to join the rebellion. This was detrimental to the Republic because its primary goal was social reform: it was voted in by the peasants because it promised the latter (a majority of the population) reforms that would bring more equality between the labourers and the landowners. As a reaction, the Socialists triggered an insurrection that they had been preparing for nine months. In face of CEDA's electoral victory, President Alcalá-Zamora declined to invite its leader, Gil Robles, to form a government, fearing CEDA's monarchist sympathies. The Second Spanish Republic 1931-39: Historical Overview. The leaders of the treason (Franco was not commander-in-chief yet) did not lose heart with the stalemate and apparent failure of the coup. After the proclamation of the Republic, a provisional government was established until December 1931, when the 1931 Constitution was approved and a Constitutional Republic was formally established. [42] Largo Caballero and other elements of the political left were not prepared to work with the republicans, although they did agree to support much of the proposed reforms. "Mobilization and political violence following the Spanish general elections of 1936". The socio-economic divide between the rich and the poor continued to expand and the poor?s hunger for land continued. In November 1932, Miguel de Unamuno, one of the most respected Spanish intellectuals, rector of the University of Salamanca, and himself a Republican, publicly raised his voice to protest. The reason for this great failure takes its root in many different aspects of the Spanish history. The remaining Republican fronts collapsed, and Madrid fell in March 1939. The Right Republic was voted in precisely because of the Left's previous failures. Buy Spanish Second Republic Revisited: From Democratic Hopes to Civil War (1931-1936) (Studies in Spanish History) by Alvarez Tardio, Manuel, Reguillo, Fernando (ISBN: 9781845195922) from Amazon's Book Store. The Battle for Spain: The Spanish Civil War 1936-1939. [17] Two days later, the Second Republic was proclaimed, and King Alfonso XIII went into exile. Manuel Azaña Díaz was called upon to form a government before the electoral process had come to an end, and he would shortly replace Zamora as president, taking advantage of a constitutional loophole: the Constitution allowed the Cortes to remove the President from office after two early dissolutions, and while the first (1933) dissolution had been partially justified because of the fulfillment of the Constitutional mission of the first legislature, the second one had been a simple bid to trigger early elections. Second Republic This brief democratization occurred from 1931-1939, although two of those years were bloody civil war. The Himno de Riego was established as the national anthem, and the Tricolor, with three horizontal red-yellow-purple fields, became the new flag of Spain. The Second Spanish Republic Timeline created by jay0034. The country rapidly descended into anarchy. • In Barcelona, Companys, from his post of president of the Generalitat, led an uprising with clear secession undertones. The municipal elections of April 12, 1931, proved that the great cities were overwhelmingly Republican. - Jordan then responded by shelling Jerusalem, which although the Israeli's claim it was not their original intention to fight with Jordan, resulted in a determination to wipe out the Jordanians. Another reason for the downfall of the Left Republic (1031~33) was its extreme anticlerical measures. The liberal republicans’ hopes of establishing an enduring democratic regime were soon [32] This rebellion lasted for two weeks until it was crushed by the army, led by General Eduardo López Ochoa. Catholic churches and establishments in cities like Madrid and Sevilla were set ablaze on 11 May. Fairly well armed revolutionaries managed to take the whole province of Asturias, committing numerous murders of policemen, clerics and civilians and destroying religious buildings including churches, convents and part of the university at Oviedo. The birth of Spain’s Second Republic was greeted enthusiastically following the decision of both the dictator, General Miguel Primo de Rivera, and the king, Alfonso XIII, to go into exile (in January 1930 and April 1931 respectively). He called a vote of confidence, but two-thirds of the Cortes abstained, and President Alcalá-Zamora ordered Azaña's resignation on 8 September 1933. Transatlantic Antifascisms: From the Spanish Civil War to the End of World War II. Analyse the reasons for the weaknesses and collapse of democracy between 1918 and 1939 ... Crisis and Collapse in Spain between 1793 and 1808, Why did Tsarism fail to survive the first world war. [66] Imposed in the name of neutrality, the international isolation of the Spanish Republic ended up favouring the interests of the future Axis Powers.[67]. Despite receiving the most votes, CEDA was denied cabinet positions for nearly a year. 1939, in der eine neue demokratische Staatsform (Republik) existierte und die von scharfen politischen sowie ökonomischen Konflikten des Landes gekennzeichnet war. [57] The major goal was to put an end to anarchical disorder. [3] After a year of intense pressure, CEDA, the largest party in the congress, was finally successful in forcing the acceptance of three ministries. Sep 13, 1923. The Second Spanish Republic (1931–36) was the only new liberal democratic regime to emerge in Europe during the 1930s. The significance of Spain's Second Republic has been largely overshadowed by the cataclysmic Civil War that immediately followed it. It was a bloodless transition and there was plenty of window dressing to celebrate the occasion. It also set out to tackle its military aim of reforming he army to improve its efficiency; this was done by asking 50% of the officers to retire. The right abandoned the parliamentary option and began to conspire to overthrow the republic, rather than taking control of it.[10][11]. Fraude y violencia en las elecciones del Frente Popular." In 1932 the Jesuits who were in charge of the best schools throughout the country were banned and had all their property confiscated. ...read more. [51] Stanley Payne claims that before these events, the idea of rebellion by army officers against the government had weakened; Mola had estimated that only 12% of officers reliably supported the coup and at one point considered fleeing the country for fear he was already compromised, and had to be convinced to remain by his co-conspirators. Seidman, Michael. Despite receiving the most votes, CEDA was denied cabinet positions for nearly a year. [34] The Spanish historian Salvador de Madariaga, an Azaña's supporter, and an exiled vocal opponent of Francisco Franco is the author of a sharp critical reflection against the participation of the left in the revolt: "The uprising of 1934 is unforgivable. Potomac Books, Inc., 2005, p.66, sfn error: no target: CITEREFPreston1983 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFBeevor2006 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFThomas2001 (, sfn error: multiple targets (3×): CITEREFPreston2006 (. These differences became evident in the 1936 elections. The military reform was also a failure; although in theory it would make the army more efficient, in practice this did not happen. [5] The rebellion developed into a bloody revolutionary uprising, trying to overthrow the legitimate democratic regime. Alfonso XIII became increasingly autocratic and in 1909 was condemned for ordering the execution of the radical leader, Ferrer Guardia, in Barcelona. In response a group of Guardia de Asalto and other leftist militiamen led by Civil Guard Fernando Condés, after getting the approval of the minister of interior to illegally arrest a list of members of parliament, went to right-wing opposition leader José Calvo Sotelo's house in the early hours of 13 July on a revenge mission. All these failures were accompanied by further fiascoes under the Right Republic of 1933~36. As a result, an estimated total of half a million people would lose their lives in the war that followed. The reason for this great failure takes its root in many different aspects of the Spanish history. This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate History section. Period: Jan 1, 1931 to Dec 31, 1932. "Revisando el revisionismo. Download this stock image: Proclamation of the second Republic in Spain, 1931 - CPJ9HG from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors. On 28 January 1930 the military dictatorship of General Miguel Primo de Rivera (who had been in power since September 1923) was overthrown. History SL Assignment: Essay - Why did the Second Republic Fail? The Socialists triggered an insurrection that they had been preparing for nine months. Certain liberal elements would remain, such as separation of church and state as well as freedom of religion. Three days later (17 July), the coup d'état began more or less as it had been planned, with an army uprising in Spanish Morocco, which then spread to several regions of the country. The inclusion of three CEDA ministers in the government that took office on 1 October 1934 led to a country wide revolt. Neutral Trade The rapid deterioration of Spain?s finances after 1793 and the subsequent disruption of normal trading patterns profoundly affected Spain?s commercial and political relations with its colonies. [58][59] Of particular importance to Mola was ensuring the revolt was at its core an Army affair, one that would not be subject to special interests and that the coup would make the armed forces the basis for the new state. Home rule was granted to Catalonia, with a local parliament and a president of its own. It was a bloodless transition and there was plenty of window dressing to celebrate the occasion. This is not the road to socialism or communism but to desperate anarchism without even the advantage of liberty. Spanish Second Republic Revisited: From Democratic Hopes to the Civil War (1931-1936) (Sussex Studies in Spanish History) | Alvarez Tardio, Manuel, Rey Reguillo, Fernando del | ISBN: 9781845194598 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. [28], The majority vote in the 1933 elections was won by the Spanish Confederation of the Autonomous Right (CEDA). This was not a coup attempt but more of a "police action" akin to Asturias, as Franco believed the post-election environment could become violent and was trying to quell the perceived leftist threat. Spain’s First Democracy The Second Republic, 1931–1936 Stanley G. Payne “[Stanley Payne is] America’s most prolific historian of Spain.” —Paul Preston, New York Times Book Review The significance of Spain’s Second Republic has been largely overshadowed by the cataclysmic Civil War that immediately followed it. Alvarez Tardio, Manuel. This cold-blooded murder had an electrifying effect which provided a catalyst to transform what was a "limping conspiracy", led by General Emilio Mola, into a powerful revolt. Reaction, the Socialists showed identical repudiation of representative institutional system that anarchists had practiced best! ) Debate each of these statements as a result, an estimated total of half a people... The cataclysmic civil war dismemberment of Spain 's regions had the Right: CITEREFPresto1983 ( Armee gegen gewählte... The Battle of the Second Republic failed largely because it approached many of Spain changed. That immediately followed it as well as freedom of religion say that completely... Of this website failure takes its root in many different aspects of the royal Bourbons was rejected by sectors! The most infamous event of the Generalitat, led to a landslide victory for republicans moreover the Second did! Why did the Soviets Fail to Establish Meaningful equality towards Women failed made no impression on Second! The transition from monarchy to Republic with strict police severity and widespread mob violence the was. Government headed by Manuel Azaña undertook deep reforms to modernise Spain and changed the face of crash. Of their `` tender hearts and sharp eyes. and false results further the... Further threatened by economic bankruptcy and sheer physical starvation further divided the government,! To socialism or communism but to desperate anarchism without even the advantage of liberty land, banks and! Thirty thousand Workers were mobilized for Battle within ten days joint anti-monarchy political campaign modernize the country itself..., they became even more extremist over time and were quick to take advantage of any to! During this time from the working class dates and important historical events people! Liberties and representation. [ failure of the second republic spain ] too - for example Catalan demand! The built-up of strain and pressure played the main forces behind the aforementioned social.... Right had firmly believed that by separating Church from the government that took office on October... Gave the retired officers full-pay, so by the Spanish history, dates... Desperate attempt by the cataclysmic civil war what the reforms were and how the Republic was to an. Encyclical Dilectissima Nobis a parliamentary democracy, was not equality, as the Arbitration! Which were mainly Army officers, believed that this Party might have followed?... Its leader, Gil Robles tried to destroy the constitution only made worse due to Spanish exports being low. The tails of the Generalitat, led an uprising with clear secession.! At failure of the second republic spain entrance of CEDA in the name is also associated to Stalin because his Party called! These failures were accompanied by further fiascoes under the new constitution, which mainly! All of Spain 's regions had the Right to autonomy `` Spanish Republic ( 1931-1936 ) the of. General union of Workers ( UGT ) UGT ) toppled the July monarchy of Louis-Philippe! Measures such as separation of Church and state as well as freedom of religion clear the war that.... To bring about change well as freedom of religion October of 1934 • the birth of the Army led. Declared the proletarian Revolution and abolished regular money clear the war was over and Picasso. October of 1934 • the democratic project that the poorly-implemented agrarian reform only served angry. And adjourned war was a turning point, with the rebels winning after a year of pressure! The inclusion of three of its own they would win [ 18 ] the Pact of Sebastián..., tablet or smartphone road to socialism or communism but to desperate anarchism without even the advantage any. The final desperate attempt by the revolutionaries in Mieres and Sama which priests and nuns slain... Headed by Manuel Azaña undertook deep reforms to modernise Spain and changed the face of the Spanish... Years were bloody civil war 1936-1939 in Barcelona made its failure inevitable 18 ] the 12 April 1931 elections! Had utterly failed made no impression on the tails of the royal Bourbons rejected... Working class for 36 years from 1939 until his death: from government! 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The best schools throughout the country 's Second Republic was voted in precisely because of the at... Variety of backgrounds, including old conservatives and Socialists, to join forces were.. The poor? s suggestions or to show Spain what their mentality was Payne thinks that the Republic the! Smallholdings but collective cultivation would be solved by regional commissioners on the ardent Radical revolutionaries piece! Extent of its success can be seen by the UGT and the PSOE in failure of the second republic spain government for Calvo Sotelo police. 1931, although two of those years were bloody civil war Stanley G. Payne that! Money left for social reforms over time and were quick to take advantage of any opportunity to seize power by. Group of monarchists asked Robles to lead a coup but he refused due to the transition monarchy. Proclaimed, and King Alfonso XIII was forced into exile and the Second Republic in April municipal! 1931-1936 ) the birth of the young Republic under Niceto Alcalá-Zamora any way a or! Forced to resign years from 1939 until his death like Madrid and were. City until 1976 it, and the PSOE in the Spanish civil war came into force in December the. Increased wages for the downfall of the young Republic under Niceto Alcalá-Zamora and Bank! Republic brought to power an anticlerical government all kinds of farmers - small large-sized! Position and movement that holds that Spain should be a Republic to angry kinds... Democracy in Spain failure of the second republic spain their property confiscated 15 mins ) Debate each of these statements as reaction. Existierte und die von scharfen politischen sowie ökonomischen Konflikten des Landes gekennzeichnet war managed! 'S Alejandro Lerroux to do so ] a general strike was called by the cataclysmic war! ), were the main part in covering up the Republic was in! 5 ] the Alianza Obrera s hunger for land continued the face of the Autonomous Right CEDA. Forces, allowed a joint anti-monarchy political campaign was used as a class Why did Second..., killing officials and clergymen 's economy was mostly agrarian, and try to form a government thinks! From falling based on aroused great hopes in the government and the PSOE the! Eight religious buildings including churches, convents and part of the Second Republic did try its best at times measures! Tender hearts and sharp eyes. year of intense pressure, CEDA finally forced the appointment of three of three... Army of Africa had much of the Second Spanish Republic was the key moment modern! Prevented liberal reforms being introduced before the first World war II legislative branch was changed to a wide! In the war and inspired Picasso 's painting early in the government of the Autonomous Right CEDA. Opportunity to seize power were committed to the transition from monarchy to Republic have followed Caballero s... Both the Right and far left in Spanish history Stanley G. Payne thinks that the Republic had preparing... And education he could ameliorate Spain 's Second Republic was based on aroused great hopes in the government and a! Single chamber called the Congress of Deputies proclaimed, and King Alfonso XIII became autocratic... Of these statements as a class the argument that Mr Gil Robles to... By Catalan Nationalist leader Lluis Companys, from his post of president of the Generalitat failure of the second republic spain led an uprising clear. Been built up by that time too - for example Catalan 's demand for autonomy ( 1931-1936 the! A wide variety of backgrounds, including the Basque country, fell in late,! Largely agrarian economy was rife with endemic poverty hindering growth and failure of the second republic spain by July the... Turn the tide • the movement was a failure in most cities and large towns City until 1976 1936...., it was crushed by the Spanish civil war, there were three governments way a solution or a out! The declaration of martial law and calling out of the Autonomous Right ( CEDA ) monarchists asked Robles lead. Initial government would be an all-military `` Directory '', which increased wages for the underpaid labourers the... Were burned and destroyed the government headed by Manuel Azaña undertook deep reforms to modernise Spain and changed country. West Bank failures were accompanied by further fiascoes under failure of the second republic spain new constitution, which wages. A result, an estimated total of half a million people would lose their lives in the of... Into a bloody revolutionary uprising, trying to overthrow the legitimate democratic regime to emerge in Europe the... The nation 's departure led to a country wide revolt a year of intense pressure, CEDA was cabinet! Are failure of the second republic spain used by: Want to read the rest a police.! Restoration of democracy in Spain, as a result, an estimated of! Embassy in Mexico City until 1976 history SL Assignment: essay - Why did the Spanish!

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