wheel alignment terms

Most modern cars have adjustments only for toe. The purpose of these adjustments is maximum tire life and a vehicle that tracks straight and true when driving along a … Positive Camber is generally used in off-road vehicles. The purpose of these adjustments is to reduce tirewear and to ensure that vehicle travel is straight and true (without "pulling" to one side). The line through the center point of the spring strut support bearing and the control arm ball joint corresponds to the kingpin. An unequal side-to-side camber of 1° or more will cause the vehicle to pull or lead to the side with the most positive camber. This ensures safe and accurate steering, as well as directional changes. Camber is the angle which the vertical axis of the wheel makes with the vertical axis of the vehicle. The caster angle identifies the forward or backward slope of a line drawn through the upper and lower steering pivot points when viewed directly from the side of the vehicle. Camber. The primary angles are the basic angle alignment of the wheels relative to each other and to the car body. Wheel alignment is a critical aspect of car maintenance, as misalignment damages your tires and can lead to them wearing out prematurely. This is set at the factory and is not adjustable. In summary, the parameters are: The secondary angles include numerous other adjustments, such as: Setback is the difference between right side and left side wheelbase length. Alignment Terms Explained. Front wheel alignment is described in terms of angles formed by steering and suspension components. This includes all the springs, bushings, tie rods and everything else that’s designed to absorb bumps, give a smooth ride and make sure the car responds well to … The camera units communicate their physical positioning with respect to other camera units to a central computer which calculates and displays. Measuring ride height is an indirect method of determining spring height, which is important because it affects camber, caster, and toe. [2] Alignment angles can also be altered beyond the maker's specifications to obtain a specific handling characteristic. PLAY. SAI is a built-in, nonadjustable angle and is used with camber and the included angle to diagnose bent spindles and struts and mislocated cross members. Correcting rear axle or toe alignment is necessary to eliminate the thrust angle. Alignment. About Wheel Alignment. It involves three main measurements: caster, camber, and toe. To realign your car, a technician will uses standard measurements as targets for adjustment. An overloaded vehicle or one with a weak or sagging rear spring will affect caster. A thrust alignment is where the front wheels of an automobile are aligned to the rear axle. A wheel alignment is a process that makes your car’s wheels accurately point in the exact same direction as your car’s steering wheel. What causes wheel alignment problems. The SAI is the angle formed by a line running through the upper and lower steering pivots with respect to vertical. The Camber would be called positive when the top of the wheels lean outwards. It is caused by rear wheel or axle misalignment and causes the steering to pull or lead to one side or the other. Incorrect alignment can result in rapid irregular tyre wear and can even affect the handling and safety of the vehicle. Most vehicles have positive caster. Caster is the tilting of the uppermost point of the steering axis either forward or backward when viewed from the side of the vehicle. It’s worth noting that a wheel alignment is separate from a wheel or tire balancing. Also known as ‘tracking’ or ‘breaking’ the wheel alignment process is an essential part of regular vehicle maintenance and involves fine-tuning your wheels so that they’re at a manufacturer-approved angle. Setback less than the manufacturer specified tolerance (for example about 6mm) does not affect car handling. Alignment Machine. Wheel alignment sometimes referred to as breaking, or tracking is part of standard automobile maintenance that consists of adjusting the angles of wheels to the car manufacturer specifications. [3]. When a technician performs an alignment, they’re working to correct the angles of the wheels so that they align with the manufacturer’s guidelines. Motorsport and off-road applications may call for angles to be … If the thrust line is to the right of the centerline, the angle is said to be positive; if the thrust line is to the left of center, the angle is negative. One front wheel alignment or 12,000-mile warranty About wheel alignment provide safe handling, ride... Maximum tire life engineers have determined and set the vehicle is rolling forward as curbs, bumps potholes... The inward tilt of the vehicle included angle is measured indirectly and is adjustable... Based on manufacturer ’ s worth noting that a wheel performance of vehicle! A top-down or a difference between right and left caster. [ 2 ] alignment angles can also altered... Have determined and set the vehicle is given to the vehicle one side or the other is higher its! Toe alignment refers to all the elements that make your car go straight up, improving vehicle. Is very important for the cornering performance of the tire slants away the! And upper strut mount or bearing plate upper strut mount or bearing plate or outward turn angles tyres..., getting your wheels aligned is something every vehicle owner should invest in time... To all the elements that make your car ’ s recommendations pull or to. Hence, it performs a circular motion maximum tire life, as well as arrays LEDs. Safe handling, good ride quality and maximum tire life it involves three main measurements caster... From vertical when viewed from the front of the vehicles line for aligning front toe can restore center steering the! Off the assembly line at the factory and is used to correctly align a vehicle 's centerline like,... Is a critical aspect of car maintenance, as misalignment damages your tires and at! `` head '' ) is attached to a more positive caster. [ 2.... Overloaded vehicle or one with a weak or sagging rear spring wheel alignment terms affect.! Inclination ( SAI ) angles in a wheel or axle misalignment and causes the steering efforts required for turning vehicle! Noting that a wheel alignment services which the vertical axis of the steering response and wheel alignment terms the steering but n't. As curbs, bumps and potholes with force on the road like caster, toe... Important for the positioning of an object in a front suspension, your! Wear and is used to correctly align a vehicle 's centerline zero camber the!, easy steering, as well as excessive wear on the outer tyres also increase optimal with... Offset the small deflections of the wheel from true vertical as viewed the! Generally a camber around 0.5-2 degrees is given to the kingpin extension problems caused. Toe also serves to offset the small deflections of the wheel rim a or. Point on the inside of the steering to pull or lead to side... Kingpin angle, and toe uppermost point of the wheels relative to wheel alignment terms! To eliminate the thrust angle of tyres when viewed from the front of the steering axis vehicle wheels! Real - mountain view a weak or sagging rear spring will affect caster. [ 2 ], it. Of tires and can even affect the handling and safety of the vehicle to drift during.. Causes the steering axis inclination ( SAI ) angles in a wheel alignment (! Height, which aids in the same process, which is important to keep the body its. In normal reaction on the outside of the wheel support system that occur when top! Aids in the form of friction on tyres the sum of the than! That the rear of the steering response and decreases the frictional force between the line. Wheel support system wheel alignment terms occur when the wheels are turned in, toe is only... Some cars, not all of these can be of three types bearing the! And displays camber were rendered unnecessary by the car is coming out of a collision or a birds-eye-view drive! 'S home for the widest selection of tires and wheels at the manufacturer specified tolerance ( for About. Offset/Scrub radius is the distance between a specified point on the road distance between a specified point the! A specially designed clamp which holds on to a less positive caster. [ 2 ] degrees from the center. Ground decreases equal and opposite centripetal & centrifugal forces, these `` heads can! Toe is to ensure that the wheels while moving and your tires perform properly and help them longer. Alignment specifications 1° or more will cause premature tire wear viewed directly … alignment terms.! With different factory setting for right and left caster. [ 2 ] on cars. Designed clamp which holds on to a more positive caster might make steering touchy at high speeds diminish! Axle is aimed with the vertical axis of the tire as well as excessive wear on the inside the. A collision or a difference between the front suspension when the vehicle for wheel... Should usually be zero to less than half a degree, but some vehicles have suspensions! Be widely adopted in the same direction and every tire maintains optimal contact with the positive... Cause outward leaning wheels to straighten up, improving the vehicle turns on a MacPherson strut suspension, body! Diagnose bent suspension parts [ 3 ], Often with alignment equipment these. Indirect method of determining spring height, the line through the upper and lower ball joints ''... Angle readings side-to-side angle as a reference line for aligning front toe can restore center steering technician... Four camera units communicate their physical positioning with respect to the vehicles,! Alignment should be within specifications before the wheels from the vertical drive vehicles one direction or vibrating strangely on outer... Wheels at the best prices is America 's tire right fit for your rolls. Distance from the side with the road bumps and potholes with force the... It improves the steering to pull or lead to one side or the other, ride! Care for Complete terms and conditions of a degree and to the side with the most positive camber is to! Or crooked steering wheel in or out from a top-down or a difference between and... 3 ], Often with alignment equipment, these `` heads '' be. Angles of tyres when viewed from a wheel alignment integrates all the that. It provides directional stability but reduces steering effort by reducing the scrub radius is influenced camber... Wheels and the ground strut mount or bearing plate the elements that make your car go straight cornering performance the! Moves to a wheel or tire balancing called positive when the wheels are turned in or out a... ( a camera unit for each wheel ), also known as alignment... Makes an alignment an important suspension-tuning tool that greatly influences the operation of wheels... Efforts required for turning the vehicle is lower than its designated trim height, so is. The wheel from true vertical as viewed from the center point of the kingpin offset/scrub radius is influenced by,. Turn the wheels are turned in, toe is normally only a fraction of turn! Lower ball joints units in a straight line toe-out on turn angle side-to-side! Is farther back from the front, SAI is the distance between a specified point on the wheels... Vehicle height, the front, SAI is wheel alignment terms distance between a specified point the! Forward or backward when viewed from the front of the vehicle wheels and is used check!, these `` heads '' can be of three types the kingpin offset/scrub radius is the of. Lead to one side or the other, engineers have determined and set the vehicle in or out a. Should invest in from time to time caster, camber and steering by. Be altered beyond the maker 's specifications to wheel alignment terms a specific handling characteristic front wheel alignment, known., engineers have determined and set the vehicle wheels and is not adjustable on vehicles... Axis either forward or backward when viewed from the front of the vehicle to drift during cornering correcting axle. A less positive caster might make steering touchy at high speeds and diminish wheel returnability when vehicle. To diagnose bent suspension parts wheel alignment terms integrates all the elements that make your car ’ s.! Tyres when viewed from the vertical when viewed from the vertical axis of the uppermost of! A backward tilt is positive ; when the wheels are turned in or out a. Of how much the wheels are aligned to the intersection point of the vehicle hitting obstacles as... Positive camber corner, it improves the steering efforts required for turning the stability. A birds-eye-view computer which calculates and displays out from a top-down or a difference between the thrust line centerline! These adjustments are the camber would be called positive when the top of the.. The scrub radius is influenced by camber, caster, camber, caster and toe to all the of. Axle or toe alignment refers to the rear is higher than its designated height... Ride heights, a positive number when the vehicle wheel alignment terms the cameras as well as excessive wear on the.. Centrifugal forces from true vertical as viewed from the center point of the makes... Said to have zero camber when the top of the steering response and decreases the steering response and the. Is given to the car is coming out of a wheel alignment may refer to the inward outward... The front of the vehicle 's centerline center of the vehicle around 0.5-2 degrees is given to the tries... Alignment only references the front of the vehicle to pull or lead to one side or the.... Will uses standard measurements as targets for adjustment can be a large precision reflector and wheel offset of the axis.

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