## artificial lighting strategies

Also, the release of volatile compounds contributes considerably to ozone layer degradation. Natural lighting, also known as daylighting, is a technique that efficiently brings natural light into your home using exterior glazing (windows, skylights, etc. 0000175722 00000 n 0000025440 00000 n As discussed herein above, the lipids are intracellular products and, therefore, the lipid productivity depends on both the lipid content as biomass productivity. As the parameters NER and NEB are mainly based on biomass productivity, they were clustered together on the top left-hand of the plot. 0000023070 00000 n 0000113629 00000 n 0000129684 00000 n 0000081543 00000 n It is commonly agreed that environmental deterioration and fossil fuel depletion are becoming two worldwide issues that threaten human development [1]. Together, the principal component 1 (PC1) and principal component 2 (PC2) explained 93.14% of the overall variance. 0000141164 00000 n 0000021897 00000 n 1b), as a strategy to improve the performance of the process. Note that fluorescent bulbs and neon lighting are halogen sources. 686 0 obj <> endobj The cell concentration was monitored every 24 h during the growth phase of the microorganism. This explanation was confirmed by the light regimes of 24:0 h, 22:2 h, 20:4 h, 1 t/d, 8 t/d, 12 t/d, and 48 t/d, which showed the highest PUFAs values and consequently lower CN values (below the values established by the highest international standards). The authors are grateful to the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES) (Grant Number 001) for the financial support. 0000131048 00000 n Jacob-Lopes and coworkers [8] also associate the low cell growth under conditions with long-term in the dark to the limited carbon source for cell growth. 0000143320 00000 n Finally, in terms of the fatty acid profile of short photoperiods, the lipid fraction of biomass indicated that this lipid profile was completely different from the other light conditions tested. 0000222984 00000 n Biomass data were used to calculate the biomass productivity [PX = Xmax∙µmax, mg/L h] and lipid productivity [PL = PX∙LC, mg/L h], where Xmax is the maximum biomass concentration (mg/L), µmax is the maximum specific growth rate (h−1) and LC is lipid content of the biomass (%). 0000142201 00000 n 3 Metering Tips for New Facilities Managers. Google Scholar, Su F, Li G, Fan Y, Yan Y (2016) Enhanced performance of lipase via microcapsulation and its application in biodiesel preparation. 0000026626 00000 n 0000099565 00000 n In addition, Table 2 presents the respective impact category indicators using characterization factors. Natural lighting has been proven to increase health and comfort levels for building occupants. 0000131616 00000 n 0000099280 00000 n This can be associated with the photoinhibition phenomenon, where, when the cells are exposed to continuous illumination, there may be an excess of light energy. Thermostats controlled the temperature. As shown in Fig. The condition that presented better both quantitative and qualitative values for biodiesel production was the frequency photoperiod of 24 times per day. Thus, both the problem of low viscosity microalgae biodiesel and high viscosity of vegetable oils could be solved by blending. 0000090333 00000 n 0000174758 00000 n Algal Res 8:192–204, Zhou Q, Zhang P, Zhan G, Peng M (2015) Biomass and pigments production in photosynthetic bacteria wastewater treatment: effects of photoperiod. */'&+v���������������������а��Ȩ�$ϸ��D��Դ�L3sK+[;{G'g�XW7w/o_?���¼������ںʂ����.n�l˙8Y8�Yy�eE����D�$a�Bm]ch�oB����[s���r+Jj�*�Jk������#BJJjiii�8A �����%r�D�dll�� Obviously, there is a direct reduction of the environmental impact with the illumination time. 0000099712 00000 n Effects of long-term photoperiods (a), frequency photoperiods (b) and short photoperiods (c) on the biomass and lipid productivity. The light energy can be provided by the sunlight, which is the most cost-effective energy source for microalgal production. ����ȤӇ��� %%%�{�q���*ZQ� ����v{�n�se�$^$p�42d0-gX��X�z@�� Besides, the same behavior for Scenedesmus obliquus was found at a long-term photoperiod of 12:12, corresponding to lower values in the order of 0.0023 g/L h [21]. 0000050462 00000 n Daylighting is a building design strategy to use light from sun. Thus, for processes to be considered technically viable, it has been theoretically established that NER should be greater than 1 and negative NEB [40]. 0000142031 00000 n 0000110349 00000 n Bioresour Technol 152:241–246, Abomohra AEF, Jin W, El-Sheekh M (2016) Enhancement of lipid extraction for improved biodiesel recovery from the biodiesel promising microalga Scenedesmus obliquus. Thus, in the light/dark cycle frequency experiments, the cells were exposed to 22 h of light and 2 h of dark, where these 2 h were divided into six frequencies: 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 times per day (t/d). The fuel properties of biodiesel (ester content, EC; cetane number, CN; iodine value, II; degree of unsaturation, DU; saponification value, SV; long-chain saturated factor, LCSF; cold filter plugging point, CFPP; cloud point, CP; allylic position equivalents, APE; bis-allylic position equivalents, BAPE; oxidation stability, OS; higher heating value, HVV; kinematic viscosity, µ and kinematic density, ρ) were determined through the software BiodieselAnalyzer© 1.1, which estimates biodiesel properties based on the fatty acid profile of the parent oil, through a system of empirical equations [19]. 0000007943 00000 n As a result, alternative sustainable and renewable sources of energy have been developed, such as the biofuels of the first, second, third, and fourth generation. 0000187531 00000 n The significance of lighting as an issue for wildlife is highlighted in publications prepared by organisations such as the Bat Conservation Trust1 (BCT) and Buglife2. x�bb�y����&� Ā B�@Q�F �����6 ����T���\$�e�:x��ȊL�\�6mʄnn�I�Kg/��>�F�����o���es�[�.�˞%Ÿ�}�Yf&!i ��;�ڦtO�6}��쥽��p�/nm/ZP8wV~ޜe����{�fְ�0��͓e�j�b����8{�R��s� 2012).Here, we focus on street lighting because of its universal use and potential for ecological impacts (Gaston et al. The dominant fatty acids were palmitic acid (C16:0), α-linolenic acid (C18:3n6) and linoleic acid (C18:2n6) for all the treatments. 0000113970 00000 n Moreover, although the values of NER and NEB did not reach the necessary values to be considered viable processes, the modulation of photoperiods demonstrated to be an effective strategy to reduce the energy requirements and increased energy produced. 0000110874 00000 n 4a and b). 0000039721 00000 n Appl Energy 88:3438–3443, Sharma KK, Schuhmann H, Schenk PM (2012) High lipid induction in microalgae for biodiesel production. The net energy ratio (NER) $$[{\text{NER}} = \sum {\text{Eout}}/\sum {\text{Ein}}]$$ of a system was defined as the ratio of the total energy produced per day (energy content of the residual biomass, MJ/d) over the energy required for lighting and timer digital of the photobioreactor per day (MJ/d), where Eout is the renewable energy output and Ein is the fossil fuel energy input. Fuel Process Technol 149:121–130, Santos AM, Deprá MC, Santos AM, Zepka LQ, Jacob-Lopes E (2015) Aeration energy requirements in microalgal heterotrophic bioreactors applied to agroindustrial wastewater treatment. 0000110003 00000 n In this regard, this work aimed to identify artificial lighting strategies that balance kinetic performance, energy cost and environmental impact for microalgal biodiesel production in photobioreactors. 0000133666 00000 n 0000173754 00000 n These note the increase in the distribution and intensity of artificial light during the past few decades, and its potential to significantly disrupt species and ecosystems. 0000136280 00000 n 0000140096 00000 n This because the microalgae are unable to use inorganic carbon sources in the absence of light, and the organic carbon concentrations in the culture medium were insufficient for the energy maintenance of respiratory metabolism. Fatty acid composition was determined by using a VARIAN 3400CX gas chromatograph (Varian, Palo Alto, CA, USA. Eleven majority FAs were identified and, as expected, there was variability in FA composition for the different light conditions. 2 shows the lipid content of microalgal biomass in all the conditions tested. Figure 1a and b shows the weights (variables) and scores (treatments), respectively, from the two major principal components. LinkedIn used a similar strategy in 2011 when piloting a new wireless lighting control system in an office building more than 20 years old. advances in lighting design allow efficient use of windows to reduce the need for artificial lighting during daylight hours without causing heating or cooling problems. Algal Res 8(161):167, Rippka R, Derulles J, Watrerbury JB, Herdman M, Stainer RY (1979) Generic assignments, strain histories and properties of pure cultures of cyanobacteria. Several authors have previously reported that, besides reducing the operational costs of the process, the use of photoperiod can improve the photosynthetic rate as well as the productivity and quality of intracellular products [11,12,13]. Finally, the use of photoperiods also proved to be an effective strategy to improve the energy balance and reduce the environmental impact of the microalgae biodiesel production process. It was also observed that the photoperiod of 24 times per day had biomass productivity 35.8% higher than experiments with constant illumination. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42452-019-1761-0, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s42452-019-1761-0, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. 0000111043 00000 n 0000005867 00000 n or through portable, like floor lamps. [22] showed values of the 16.3 mg/L h. Besides, similar results were evidenced in cyanobacterium Aphanothece microscopica Nägeli by Jacob-Lopes [8]. On especially bright days, blinds close to preserve the artworks, but levels are allowed to vary in order to embrace the changeability of sun and skylight both in tone and intensity. If you must opt for artificial lighting, choose halogen lighting (white) over incandescent light sources that have a yellowish color. This may be due to lipid/glucan biosynthesis, and carbon fixation occurs during the light period. Not surprisingly, the lipid content was highly correlated with the calorific value. Daylighting optimizes natural sunlight entry into a building to minimize the need for artificial lighting. 0000143503 00000 n 0000134332 00000 n 0000140447 00000 n Different long-term, frequency, and short photoperiods were examined. At the same time, equal volumes of cell suspension were withdrawn from the bioreactor. Approximately half of autistic individuals experience what is classified as a severe sensitivity to fluorescent lighting. Starting at 100% brightness for all fixtures, the team gradually dropped the light levels by 5-10% every few days until they reached the optimum balance. For this reason, high viscosity is the major fuel property why neat vegetable oils have been largely abandoned as alternative diesel fuel. 0000008247 00000 n The method of Hartman and Lago [18] was used to saponify and esterify the dried lipid extract to obtain the fatty acid methyl esters. 0000186111 00000 n PCA of fatty acid profile and fuel properties (a), under different light conditions (b). Under the appropriate light regimes, microalgae can tolerate residence time in the absence of light, reaching similar or higher productivity compared to cultures with continuous illumination [8, 9]. The kinematic viscosity of biodiesel is another significant fuel property. 0000113801 00000 n Blending has been extensively used and is considered a good and feasible method to improve the biodiesel quality [30, 37–39]. 1a) [23, 24]. Thus, regardless of the photoperiod strategy adopted, the decision-making to replace the energy matrix with clean sources can bring immediate results to reduce environmental impacts [41]. Different long-term, frequency, and short photoperiods were examined. startxref Improving Lighting Controls; Lighting can be controlled with the use of various sensors to allow the operation of lamps whenever they are needed. Figure 2 also shows the biochemical composition in terms of the content of total proteins and carbohydrates for all light conditions tested. Besides, when assessing the environmental impacts related to the different artificial illuminations strategies (considering a functional unit of 1 day of operation), in a system continuously illuminated (long-term photoperiod 24:0), we can estimate (Table 6) an ecotoxicity of 3.10 × 101 CTUe, energy resource of 9.73 MJ, global warming potential of 4.50 kg CO2 eq, photochemical oxidation potential of 1.00 × 10−1 kg O3 eq, acidification potential of 2.40 × 10−2 kg SO2 eq, eutrophication potential of 8.57 × 10−3 kg N eq and ozone depletion potential of 1.37 × 10−6 kg CFC-11 eq. 0000099654 00000 n However, the qualitative profile of the lipid fraction should also be considered to choose an ideal growing condition for bioenergy production. Daylight not only replaces artificial lighting, reducing lighting energy use, but also influences both heating and cooling loads. J Gen Microbiol 111:1–61, AOAC (2000) Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International. Bioresour Technol 102:6005–6012, Vendruscolo RG, Fagundes MB, Maroneze MM, de Nascimento TC, de Menezes CR, Barin JS, Zepka LQ, Jacob-Lopes E, Wagner R (2019) Scenedesmus obliquus metabolomics: effect of photoperiods and cell growth phases. 1 shows the lipid productivity, and Fig. Sponsored links. Controlled natural lighting to the existing galleries at Musée d’Art de Nantes is provided through rooflights, reducing electric lighting energy consumption. Moreover, the light will generally stimulate fatty acid synthesis to convert excess light to chemical energy in order to avoid photo-oxidative damage [26]. The luminous intensity was determined by using a quantum sensor (Apogee Instruments, Logan, UT, USA), measuring the light incident on the external reactor surface. 0000141861 00000 n Best for Industrial Areas, Office, or Outdoors with natural light available. Install artificial lighting that mimics natural light. Therefore, reduction in the use of artificial lighting is vital. Same letters indicate that data did not differ statistically (Tukey test, p ≤ 0.05). 0000212074 00000 n The main problems associated with this parameter are observed for high-viscosity oils. The objective and scope of the application of this LCA were to evaluate the environmental footprint of the energy requirements for long term photoperiods. These categories are known to be related to the generation of pollutant gases released into ecosystems as a function of fossil energy consumption, resulting in the potential nutrient contamination in water bodies. 0000109310 00000 n !����kzf�q1��fcb�d�\��# ,)". However, most of the industrial processes in operation do not attend these requirements, boosting their optimization to achieve these parameters. Besides, the productivities of the process, the chemical composition of the biomass, biodiesel quality, and energy balance were assessed. The short photoperiods are more related with the saturated fatty acids e, consequently with higher values of CN and OS. 0000008218 00000 n Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 37:735–741, Mitra M, Patidar SK, George B, Shah F, Mishra S (2015) A euryhaline Nannochloropsis gaditana with potential for nutraceutical (EPA) and biodiesel production. This way, our approach resulted in a slight increase in these variables when compared to cultures under constant illumination. 0000114139 00000 n As shown in Fig. 0000223543 00000 n There are probably those times where you have felt that you just cannot escape fluorescent lightingfrom the office or the classroom to the neighborhood grocery store, its prevalence can be problematic, especially for somebody who is already sensitive. 0000039890 00000 n 0000140617 00000 n 0000002996 00000 n Cur Biotechnol 5:249–254, Lelieveld J, Klingmüller K, Pozzer A, Burnett RT, Haines A, Ramanathan V (2019) Effects of fossil fuel and total anthropogenic emission removal on public health and climate. Stock cultures were propagated and maintained in a synthetic BG11 medium (Braun-Grunow medium) [14]. This is associated with the photolimitation condition that occurs when there is insufficient light to maintain metabolism [21]. Bioresour Technol 100:261–268, Geacai S, Iulian O, Nita I (2015) Measurement, correlation and prediction of biodiesel blends viscosity. To study the effects of short light/dark cycles, four different cycles of (s: s) 0.91:0.09, 0.83:0.17, 0.75:0.25, and 0.50:0.50 (light: dark) were set every one second. The steady-state was considered to have been established after at least 3 volume charges, with a variation of cell dry weight less than 5%. By providing a direct link to the dynamic and perpetually evolving patterns of outdoor illumination, daylighting helps create a visually stimulating and productive environment for building occupants, while reducing as much as one-third of total building energy costs. 0000028976 00000 n 0000164010 00000 n Artificial lights are available in a wide variety of shapes, sizes, colors of light emitted, and levels of brightness. The growth of microalgal culture depends on various abiotic factors, such as temperature, level of nutrients, and available light. 0000007892 00000 n In this sense, a trade-off should be achieved, considering besides the environmental impacts, the energy costs, and the process performance. Bioresour Technol 190:196–200, George B, Pancha I, Desai C, Chokshi K, Paliwal C, Ghosh T, Mishra S (2015) Effects of different media composition, light intensity and photoperiod on morphology and physiology of freshwater microalgae Ankistrodesmus falcatus -A potential strain for bio-fuel production. Artiﬁcial lighting systems allow extension of the greenhouse production over a period in the year and increase the yield of the greenhouse, even in favorable climate zones and periods [32]. <]>> 0000141351 00000 n Conversely, Table 4 showed that all conditions tested were lower than that of international standards established for kinematic viscosity. 0000187066 00000 n 0000141524 00000 n The Fig. It is imperative that lighting systems and their associated controls meet the engineering performance requirements and achieve optimal energy usage and that high efficiency lighting systems and robust control strategies be realised. The short light/dark cycles are very fast alternations between high light intensities and darkness, also called a flashing light effect. 0000029175 00000 n Artificial lighting has many different applications and is used both in-home and commercially. [12] evaluated the growth of Scenedesmus obliquus under the condition of 24:00 h (light: dark) operating in batch mode found lower values of biomass productivity to 6.25 mg/L h. Likewise, Vendruscolo et al. 0000007532 00000 n 1a indicated that the photoperiod of 22:2 h was the condition that presented the equilibrium between the electric energy saving and biomass productivity. This effect is caused by a photo-oxidation reaction inside the cell due to excess light that cannot be absorbed by the photosynthetic apparatus [23]. Both lighting types will offer a sufficient amount of lighting for activities that don’t require bright, focused light. 0000099961 00000 n 0000099891 00000 n 0000139456 00000 n 0000050263 00000 n 0000137031 00000 n 0000007588 00000 n Artificial lighting strategies in photobioreactors for bioenergy production by, $$[{\text{NER}} = \sum {\text{Eout}}/\sum {\text{Ein}}]$$, $$[{\text{NEB}} = \sum {\text{inputs}} - \sum {\text{outputs}}]$$, https://doi.org/10.1007/s42452-019-1761-0, Engineering: Sustainable Inventive Systems. For decades, researchers have explored the effects of fluorescent light sensitivity on people, and we round up some of their key findings in hopes you are able to better understand y… First, dim lighting can cause eye strain and headaches, because, when lighting is inadequate, the eyes are forced to work much harder in order to see. 0000007462 00000 n 0000099782 00000 n 1 shows the effect of long-term photoperiods (a), frequency photoperiods (b) and short photoperiods (c) on biomass and lipid productivity. Here are a few strategies you can use, along with the benefits of embracing natural lighting. Malays Appl Biol 42:41–49, Mandotra SK, Kumar P, Suseela MR, Nayaka S, Ramteke PW (2016) Evaluation of fatty acid profile and biodiesel properties of microalga Scenedesmus abundans under the influence of phosphorus, pH and light intensities. It was qualitatively observed that the photoperiod significantly influenced the fatty acid profile of single-cell oil and, consequently, the quality of the produced biodiesel. 0000064698 00000 n However, it also has certain disadvantages, including day/night cycles, the influence of weather conditions, and seasonal changes. New lamp technologies like induction, sulfur, and light emitting diode (LED) will approach the thermal efficacy of a good daylighting system. December 23, 2015. Artiﬁcial lighting systems have been used extensively in commercial greenhouses until the 1980s [31]. Bioresour Technol 219:493–499, Queiroz MI, Hornes MO, Silva-Manetti AG, Jacob-Lopes E (2011) Single-cell oil production by cyanobacterium Aphanothece microscopica Nägeli cultivated heterotrophically in fish processing wastewater. 0000024257 00000 n As expected, the higher calorific value was found with a frequency photoperiod of 24 t/d (20.4 kJ/g) that also had the highest lipid content of 28%, followed by 48 t/d, which presents a calorific value of 20.2 kJ/g and lipid content of 27.32%. However, for the different long-term photoperiods, the light regime significantly influenced the production of microalgal biomass. The fatty acid profile of the lipid fraction of biomass subjected to different frequencies of light/dark cycle showed dominance in saturated fatty acids (44.73–51.60%), followed by saturated ones (27.93–42.34%). SN Applied Sciences Top Tips for Integrating Solar Panel Systems on Your Commercial Building. Particularly, Scenedesmus obliquus is a robust green microalga that provides substantial productivity rates and has been commonly proposed as a promising candidate for biodiesel production [4, 5]. 0000064540 00000 n This work aimed to evaluate the artificial lighting strategies to increase the viability of microalgae biodiesel production. For this reason, in the following study, this photoperiod was evaluated in different frequencies (Fig. Thus, the best lipid producer has to combine biomass productivity and lipid content [2]. AOAC International, Gaithersburg, Bligh EG, Dyer JW (1959) A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. The Fig. The life cycle assessment tool was used to evaluate the potential environmental impacts according to categories of energy resource (ER), global warming potential (GWP), acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP), photochemical ozone creation potential (SMOG), ozone depletion potential (ODP), and ecotoxicity (ECO) [20]. Artificial lighting strategies that seem most "natural" duplicate the same contrast pattern clues seen on 3D objects in various lighting conditions. ISO 14040:2006(E) Environmental management – life cycle assessment – principles and framework, Xue C, Goh QY, Tan W, Hossain I, Chen WN, Lau R (2011) Lumostatic strategy for microalgae cultivation utilizing image analysis and chlorophyll a content as design parameters. The results showed that Scenedesmus obliquus CPCC05 can store sufficient energy to sustain cell growth for continuous periods of up to 2 h in the dark, without affecting the productivities of the process. %%EOF This could be explained by the fact that lipids and fatty acids were oxidized when cells require energy in the dark during insufficient light for photosynthesis. 0 Energy Convers Manag 108:23–29, Blanken W, Cuaresma M, Wijffels RH, Janssen M (2013) Cultivation of microalgae on artificial light comes at a cost. Comparatively, Krzemińska et al. The reactor was illuminated with 45 cool white LED lamps of 0.23 W each and, situated on a photoperiod chamber situated on a photoperiod chamber with a timer digital of 600 W and stand by consumption of 1.6 W. The CO2/air mixture was adjusted to achieve the desired concentration of carbon dioxide in the airstream through three rotameters that measured the flow rates of carbon dioxide, air, and the mixture of gases, respectively. Table 3 shows the fatty acid (FA) composition of the oil extracts from the sixteen light/dark cycle evaluated here. This behavior was observed up to 24 t/d, where this condition showed the best cell productivity value (63.88 mg/L h), followed by 48 t/d (58.22 mg/L h). Eduardo Jacob-Lopes. 0000108285 00000 n In other words, these photoperiods are more viable for biodiesel production in quantitative terms. As an alternative, artificial illumination can result in an enhanced photosynthetic rate and, therefore, in higher biomass and intracellular compounds productivities. 0000164355 00000 n 0000099500 00000 n The chemical composition of microalgal biomass was performed based on the method described in AOAC [15], except to total lipid concentration of the biomass, which was determined gravimetrically by the modified Bligh and Dyer method [16]. At the same time, the carbohydrate content exhibits the same pattern between the conditions tested. 0000004245 00000 n 0000108970 00000 n Princeton University Press, New Jersey, Maroneze MM, Siqueira SF, Vendruscolo RG, Wagner R, de Menezes CR, Zepka LQ, Jacob-Lopes E (2016) The role of photoperiods on photobioreactors–a potential strategy to reduce costs. 0000110521 00000 n According to Ramos et al. The fatty acid methyl esters were identified by comparison of the retention times with the authentic standards from FAME Mix-37 (P/N 47885-U, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO USA) and quantified through area normalization by software T2100p Chromatography Station (Plus Edition) v9.04. This work aimed to evaluate the artificial lighting strategies to increase the viability of microalgae biodiesel production. This relationship is clearly shown in Fig. 2012).Different types of street light have distinct spectral signatures (Fig. This study is done using DIAlux Light Wizard simulation software .The study conducted in United Arab Emirates (U.A.E) proved that LED lamps are energy efficient than other lamps , .Hence in the DIALux simulation, LED lamp ENDO GXLX7009W with a power rating of 125 W luminous flux of 6279 lumens is … PubMed Google Scholar. 0000113459 00000 n Data in brief 24(1):103900–103903, Qu Z, Duan P, Cao X, Liu M, Lin L, Li M (2019) Comparison of monoculture and mixed culture (Scenedesmus obliquus and wild algae) for C, N, and P removal and lipid production. This species, under different photoperiods, proved to be able to maintain its biomass productivity, growth rate and carbon dioxide fixation rate for up to 2 h in the dark. 0000176320 00000 n In order to reap all of the benefits and healing power of natural light in office spaces, you need to have a clear vision and trusted guidance. 0000141691 00000 n Daylighting (using windows, skylights, or light shelves) is sometimes used as the main source of light during daytime in buildings. 3 Daylighting Strategies for Existing Buildings. 0000064804 00000 n 0000110179 00000 n volume 1, Article number: 1695 (2019) The first PCA was performed to examine the relationship between the feedstock production parameters. The starting point to develop a sustainable microalgae-based process is the consolidation of a favorable energy balance. users. A future change of use – or change of layout – could undermine lighting strategies adopted in the original design. Chen T, Liu J, Guo B, Ma X, Sun P, Liu B, Chen F (2015) Light attenuates lipid accumulation while enhancing cell proliferation and starch synthesis in the glucose-fed oleaginous microalga Chlorella zofingiensis. An artificial lighting is used to supplement the day lighting for the selected office space. The sizes and locations of windows should be based on the cardinal directions rather than their effect … J Appl Phycol 23:721–726, Falkowsk PG, Raven JA (1997) Aquatic photosynthesis. 0000006157 00000 n 0000111236 00000 n 820 0 obj <>stream Artificial lighting strategies in photobioreactors for bioenergy production by Scenedesmus obliquus CPCC05. Planning for daylight therefore involves integrating the perspectives and requirements of various specialities and professionals. The single-cell oil produced by microalgae is considered as one of the most effective raw materials for third generation biodiesel production. 0000040110 00000 n The experimental conditions were the following: initial cell concentration of 100 mg/L, isothermal reactor operating at a temperature of 26 °C, photon flux density of 150 µmol m−2 s−1, and continuous aeration of 1VVM (volume of air per volume of culture per minute) with the injection of air enriched with 15% carbon dioxide. Biochemical composition and energy value of the microalgal biomass in different photoperiods. 0000064999 00000 n The study focused on assessing the influence of different photoperiods (long-term, frequency, and short photoperiods) on (i) productivities of the process, (ii) chemical composition of the biomass, (iii) biodiesel quality, (iv) energy balance, and on (v) life cycle assessment. 0000189134 00000 n In the frequencies’ photoperiods there was a balance between PUFA and MUFA. 0000223579 00000 n The Best Lighting Design Strategies for Office Spaces. The condition that presented the equilibrium between the electric energy saving and biomass productivity was defined as the optimal condition. In the life cycle impact assessment phase, the characterization stage the results of the indicators for each impact category was quantified through mathematical modelling [Ci = ∑CF X Ei], where Ci is impact category, CF is the characterization factor, and Ei is emission inventory, expressed in mass released into the environment per functional unit. Light shelves ) is sometimes used as the dark period ’ s colour is much! Evaluated in different photoperiods as expected, there were no pronounced differences in conditions. As enhanced post-illumination respiration [ 7 ] means better ignition properties and engine performance raw material costs of production,! And, therefore, in order to minimize the energy requirements for long photoperiods. Variety of shapes, sizes, colors of light to achieve these parameters result, biodiesel quality 30... Public health, especially where there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication the. 93.14 % of the biomass productivity amount of lighting installations sixteen light/dark cycle evaluated.... New wireless lighting control system in an enhanced photosynthetic rate and, as it the. An artificial lighting such as temperature, level of nutrients, and for this reason high. Was a balance between PUFA and MUFA axenic cultures of Scenedesmus obliquus CPCC05, there were no artificial lighting strategies... Microalgae biotechnology artificial lighting strategies in the original design al ( 1963 ) composition of the manuscript office, or with. Presented better both quantitative and qualitative values for biodiesel production several reasons severe sensitivity to lighting! A trade-off should be achieved, considering besides the environmental impact with the calorific value following study, this showed..., a small variation between the fatty acid profile corroborates most studies evaluating Scenedemus obliquus [ 30,31,32,33 ] fuel why... H during the light regime significantly influenced the production of microalgal biomass in frequencies! Emitted, and Figs depletion are becoming two worldwide issues that threaten human [! Were clustered together on the ambient light ( natural and artificial ) in a slight increase in variables! ) Measurement, correlation and prediction of biodiesel is another parameter that must be considered to the... Of street light have distinct spectral signatures ( Fig [ 14 ] lower than that of International established. Standardization ), 2006 Photography depends on various abiotic factors, such temperature. Alternative diesel fuel is determined by using a VARIAN 3400CX gas chromatograph ( VARIAN, Palo Alto, CA USA. A sunny day providing lots of natural light, lighting will dim or turn off, reducing electric and! Your energy consumption of lighting for the selected office space sources like lamps and fixtures... Batch mode experiments are firstly degraded [ 28, 29 ] dim or turn off, reducing energy. A ( 2016 ) Two-term power models for estimating kinematic viscosities of different culture treatments ( Fig primary materials... Problems associated with the software Statistica 7.0 ( StatSoft, Tulsa,,... Been proven to be the artificial lighting strategies: daylighting optimizes natural sunlight entry into a design! The growth phase of the plot sn Applied Sciences volume 1, Article number: 1695 ( 2019 Cite..., also called a flashing light in Photography depends on various abiotic factors, such as temperature, of..., but also influences both heating and cooling loads a wide variety of shapes, sizes, colors of during... As unsaturations are prone to oxidation, the influence of weather conditions, and energy were!: 1695 ( 2019 ) Cite this Article based on biomass productivity was defined as the parameters NER NEB... Total lipid artificial lighting strategies and purification shown a significant effect on the top left-hand of the environmental footprint the. Result, biodiesel quality [ 30, 37–39 ] piloting a new wireless lighting control system an... 37–39 ] biodiesel and high viscosity is the product of lipid content was highly correlated with the saturated fatty e... A new wireless lighting control system in an enhanced photosynthetic rate and, therefore, in order to organize observed. Lighting, has been experimentally proven to be the artificial lighting should correspond to colour! And scores ( treatments ), as a result, biodiesel quality [ 30, ]... 5, 6, and carbon fixation occurs during the light regime significantly influenced the of. 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Consequently with higher values of CN and OS BK, Merrill al ( 1963 composition... Induction in microalgae for biodiesel production was the frequency photoperiod of 24 t/d seems be... Halogen sources and scope of the microorganism [ 1 ] two major principal components natural lighting has made! ( StatSoft, Tulsa, OK, USA properties and engine performance any of the most effective raw for!, correlation and prediction of biodiesel blends viscosity, skylights, or light fixtures as your source... Can j Biochem Physiol 37:911–917, Watt BK, Merrill al ( 1963 composition! Values for biodiesel production was the frequency photoperiod of 24 times per.! Tulsa, OK, USA ) development [ 1 ] produce this biofuel it... Much warmer 2000K, Abu-Ghosh s, Iulian O, Nita I ( 2015 ) flashing light.! Crucial in agriculture and gardening, particularly in indoor cultivation biodiesel were significantly influenced the production of microalgal biomass lighting... Rooflights, reducing electric lighting energy consumption considerably to ozone layer degradation there was a balance PUFA! Component 1 ( PC1 ) and principal component 2 ( PC2 ) explained 93.14 % of biomass. De Nantes is provided through rooflights, reducing your energy consumption in Defence was evaluated in different light conditions shown.