background study of cowpea

The seeds can be harvested after about 100 days or the whole plant used as forage after about 120 days. [45] An individual bruchid can lay 20–40 eggs, and in optimal conditions, each egg can develop into a reproductively active adult in 3 weeks. [35] More modern methods include storage in airtight containers, using gamma irradiation, or heating or freezing the seeds. Close, Alisa Huffaker, and Eric A. Schmelz: This page was last edited on 18 January 2021, at 16:03. It is against this background that the study intends to analyzed the level of the effects of insurgency on cowpea farmers in the study area. Genetically modified cowpeas are being developed to express the cry protein from Bacillus thuringiensis, which is toxic to lepidopteran species including the maruca. [58] Like other legumes, cowpeas are cooked to make them edible, usually by boiling. [32], These characteristics, along with its low fertilisation requirements, make the cowpea an ideal crop for resource-poor farmers living in the Sahel region of West Africa. The specific objectives of this study were to assess: Legumes are primarily important as sources of protein in diets in many parts of the world. [57], Cowpeas are grown mostly for their edible beans, although the leaves, green seeds and pods can also be consumed, meaning the cowpea can be used as a food source before the dried peas are harvested. Dietary Supplement: Cowpea fortified with NaFeEDTA, in form of Toubani. Intense efforts to find alternative sources of proteins from plants adapted to adverse conditions are being conducted around the world (Siddhuraju et al. Leaves can be picked from 4 weeks after planting. Using an adapted cowpea variety that is more compatible with warm season grasses may help to overcome this issue. Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] cowpea crop species on the farmers’ land, distribution status, finding the suitable solution for the major production areas in the study area, what are the constraints of cowpea productions in the study area and so on? Rar. However, field trials confirming the benefits of microbes in large-scale applications using economically viable and efficient inoculation methods are still scarce. 30, A receptor-like protein mediates plant immune responses to herbivore-associated molecular patterns, Saliva From Hungry Caterpillars Alerts Cowpea Plants to Turn on Their Defenses, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cowpea&oldid=1001180911, Taxonbars with automatically added basionyms, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, crowder-pea, southern pea, black-eyed pea, niebe, ñebbe, yardlong bean, asparagus bean, Chinese long-bean. Due to its tolerance for sandy soil and low rainfall, it is an important crop in the semiarid regions across Africa and Asia. The plants are thought to be native to West Africa and are widely cultivated in warm regions around the world. [26] Remains of charred cowpeas from rock shelters in Central Ghana have been dated to the second millennium BCE. Background. Background: Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have the ability to enhance the growth, fitness, and quality of various agricultural crops, including cowpea. It is grown on more than 12.5 million hectares of largely smallholder farms, with an estimated production of more than 3 million metric tonnes. Cowpea is economically useful as vegetable (leaves), a protein source (seeds and young pods), fodder and pulse crop. Cowpea seeds provide a rich source of proteins and calories, as well as minerals and vitamins. The objectives of this study were to analyse the cowpea transcriptome and develop genic molecular markers for future genetic studies of this genus. [11] All cultivated cowpeas are found within the universally accepted V. unguiculata subspecies unguiculata classification, which is then commonly divided into four cultivar groups: unguiculata, biflora, sesquipedalis, and textilis. [73] In some tradition cropping methods, the yield can be as low as 100 kilograms per hectare (0.045 short ton/acre). [12][14] The original subgroups of stenophylla, dekindtiana, and tenuis appear to be common in all taxonomic treatments, while the variations pubescens and protractor were raised to subspecies level by a 1993 characterisation. Cowpea seeds acts as a major source of protein (22-24%), vitamins and minerals (Coetzee 1995). Unguiculata is Latin for "with a small claw", which reflects the small stalks on the flower petals. [37] One of the more recent developments is the use a cheap, reusable double-bagging system (called PICs) that asphyxiates the cowpea weevils. [24], While the date of cultivation began may be uncertain, it is still considered one of the oldest domesticated crops. Chloe Bustillo. Reduction of six pesticide residues (isoprocarb, chlorpyrifos, bifenthrin, beta‐cypermethrin, difenoconazole and azoxystrobin) in cowpea by alkaline electrolysed water (AlEW) solutions with different pH was investigated. [5] The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata, is the main preharvest pest of the cowpea. Brazil is the world's second-leading producer of cowpea seed, accounting for 17% of annual cowpea production, although most is consumed within the country. [19][21] Their texture and colour are very diverse. [4] Insect infestation is a major constraint to the production of cowpea, sometimes causing over 90% loss in yield. [22] Another distinguishing feature of cowpeas is the long 20–50 cm (8–20 in) peduncles, which hold the flowers and seed pods. Cowpea is the most important food grain legume in Sub-Saharan Africa. [28] The first written references to the cowpea were in 300 BC and they probably reached Central and North America during the slave trade through the 17th to early 19th centuries. Increase in vegetable protein, vitamin and soluble carbohydrates supply from cowpea in malnourished areas presents a less difficult, less expensive and more energy efficient solution. [42][43] The weevil generally enters the cowpea pod through holes before harvest and lays eggs on the dry seed. [47], Cowpea is susceptible to nematode, fungal, bacterial, and virus diseases, which can result in substantial loss in yield. The objectives of the study were to [74], This appears to be one of the latest taxonomical classifications, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species", "International Plant Names Index, entry for, "International Plant Names Index, entry for Pl. Of the different species of bean consume in the country, cowpeas in particular have attracted attention as possible home grown sources of protein and successive selections have made it possible to introduce several high yielding varieties with desirable packages of nutrients and with resistance to pest and microbial infections (Ologhobo et al, 1983). Background. Like other grain legumes, cowpeas are a good source of energy, proteins (amino acids), vitamins, minerals and deitary fiber. 1.1 Background Cowpea is a widely grown legume in tropical and subtropical Africa. [13] From there they traveled north to the Mediterranean, where they were used by the Greeks and Romans. [6] The name was most likely acquired due to their use as a fodder crop for cows. [20], Seeds and seed pods from wild cowpeas are very small,[21] while cultivated varieties can have pods between 10 and 110 cm (4 and 43 in) long. Cowpeas can be erect, semierect (trailing), or climbing. The objectives of the study were to determine the extent of genetic diversity present among a collection of cowpea accessions from Zambia and Malawi using phenotypic traits and single nucleotide … The beans are also known by other names such as blackeye beans, southern peas, colossus peas and crowther peas. [62] Although little research has been conducted on the nutritional value of the leaves and immature pods, what is available suggests that the leaves have a similar nutritional value to black nightshade and sweet potato leaves, while the green pods have less antinutritional factors than the dried seeds. 1993). [48] Common diseases include blights, root rot, wilt, powdery mildew, root knot, rust and leaf spot. Background: Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) serves as a major food and income generation crop for millions of people in sub-Saharan Africa and Central America. spontanea) populations from West Africa, using breeding lines in the IIT A collection, seed protein. Study subjects will receive 3 times per week, as part of the school feeding programme 66g of raw fortified cowpea (with added 10mg Fe as NaFeEDTA)in form of Toubani (a cowpea based snack). [12] However, as the plant is primarily self-pollinating, its genetic diversity within varieties is relatively low. The seeds are usually cooked and made into stews and curries, or ground into flour or paste. Traditional methods of protecting stored grain include using the insecticidal properties of Neem extracts, mixing the grain with ash or sand, using vegetable oils, combining ash and oil into a soap solution or treating the cowpea pods with smoke or heat. [30] Its nitrogen-fixing ability means that as well as functioning as a sole crop, the cowpea can be effectively intercropped with sorghum, millet, maize, cassava, or cotton. [6] Sesquipedalis in Latin means "foot and a half long", and this subspecies which arrived in the United States via Asia is characterised by unusually long pods, leading to the common names of yardlong bean, asparagus bean, and Chinese long-bean. Cowpea is a drought-resistant crop, a characteristic that makes it ideal for growth in East and West Africa. One peduncle can support four or more seed pods. Millions of african farmers grow cowpea, some two hundred million africans consume Productivity of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] in sub-Sahara Africa is curtailed by a lack of farmer-preferred and improved cultivars and modern production technologies. [55] Crop wild relatives are the prominent source of genetic material, which can be tapped to improve biotic/abiotic tolerance in crops. [64] They also use the cowpea paste as a supplement in infant formula when weaning babies off milk. The crop is mainly grown for its seeds, which are high in protein, although the leaves and immature seed pods can also be consumed. [72], According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, as of 2012, the average cowpea yield in Western Africa was an estimated 483 kilograms per hectare (0.215 short ton/acre),[71] which is still 50% below the estimated potential production yield. Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.), is an important grain legume grown in the tropics where it constitutes a valuable source of protein in the diets of millions of people. Comparing the effectivity of Glutinous rice starch (Oryza Sativa var Glutinosa) and Cassava starch (Manihot Esculenta) in making Biodegradable plastic CHAPTER 1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Plastics are a part of our daily lives. Four subspecies of cowpeas are recognised, of which three are cultivated. 1, No 1, June 2019 55 This trend has been observed in parts of northern Nigeria where pork and pork products, horse meat, donkey meat and meat of camels and asses are avoided by muslims. [19][20] The taproot can penetrate to a depth of 2.4 m (7 ft 10 in) after eight weeks. The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an annual herbaceous legume from the genus Vigna. The beans are also known by other names such as blackeye beans, southern peas, … [41], Severe C. maculatus infestations can affect 100% of the stored peas and cause up to 60% loss within a few months. BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION OF THE STUDY Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata(L.) Walp) is an indigenous African legume crop that is widely cultivated in the semi-arid tropical regions of Asia, Oceania, Africa, the Middle East, southern United States of America and Central and South America (Singh et al.2002). 1.1 Background of the Study Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L).Walp) is a tropical grain legume widely grown in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), Asia, parts of the United States and Southern Europe (Singh et al., [68] A seed can consist of 25% protein and has very low fat content. [40] It causes damage to the flower buds, flowers, and pods of the plant, with infestations resulting in a 20–88% loss of yield. As the cowpea plant develops, leaves are picked [33] The crop is mostly intercropped with pearl millet, and plants are selected that provide both food and fodder value instead of the more specialised varieties. is one of the most important legumes in tropical and semi-arid regions.However, there is relatively little genomic information available for genetic research on and breeding of cowpea. Background:Nutritional anemia is a public health problem among Ghanaian schoolchildren. [31], The optimum temperature for cowpea growth is 30 °C (86 °F), making it only available as a summer crop for most of the world. In bad infestations, insect pressure is responsible for over 90% loss in yield. The effect of anti-nutritional factors (tannin, phytic acid , and tryps in inhibitors) on cowpea protein, The proximate and mineral composition of cowpea grains. Background: Cowpea is a highly inbred crop. 1.1 Background of the Study 1 1.2 Problem Statement 6 1.3 Objectives of the Study 10 1.4 Justification of the Study 10 1.5 Organisation of the Study 14 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 15 2.1 Introduction 15 2.2 Cowpea Production 15 2.2.1 Economic importance of cowpea production 15 2.2.2 Determinants of cowpea production 18 [62] The grain is a rich source of folic acid, an important vitamin that helps prevent neural tube defects in unborn babies. [21] Flower colour varies through different shades of purple, pink, yellow, and white and blue. Legumes are sometimes refserred to as “poor man’s meat” or the “rich man’s vegetable” ( Walker, 1981). The grain provides valuable protein and the leaves are used as a nutritious vegetable. It is part of a crop-weed complex, whose origin and dynamics is unknown, which is distributed across the African continent. It requires very few inputs, as the plant's root nodules are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen, making it a valuable crop for resource-poor farmers and well-suited to intercropping with other crops. It is mostly cultivated by small-scale (subsistence) farmers, usually intercropped with maize or sorghum. [65] Slaves brought to America and the West Indies cooked cowpeas much the same way as they did in Africa, although many people in the American South considered cowpeas not suitable for human consumption. [38], Insects are a major factor in the low yields of African cowpea crops, and they affect each tissue component and developmental stage of the plant. [44] The larvae burrow their way into the seed, feeding on the endosperm. [5] The legume pod borer Maruca vitrata is the main preharvest pest of the cowpea and the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus the main postharvest pest. Early-maturing varieties of the crop can thrive in the semiarid climate, where rainfall is often less than 500 mm (20 in). Adam D. Steinbrenner, Maria Muñoz-Amatriaín, Antonio F. Chaparro, Jessica Montserrat Aguilar-Venegas, Sassoum Lo, Satohiro Okuda, Gaetan Glauser, Julien Dongiovanni, Da Shi, Marlo Hall, Daniel Crubaugh, Nicholas Holton, Cyril Zipfel, Ruben Abagyan, Ted C. J. Turlings, Timothy J. Cowpeas are a major source of thiamin and niacin and also contain reasonable amount of other water- soluble vitamins, riboflavin, pyridoxine and folacin. [56] International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Nigeria and Institut de I’Environment ae de Recherches Agricoles are working on cowpea crop wild relatives to tap the genetic diversity and transfer that into cultivars to make them more tolerant to different stresses and adaptive to climate change. Background: Beans from cowpea cultivars fertilized with mineral N or inoculated with various rhizobium strains may contain different nitrogen concentrations and nitrogen metabolite composition, which affects the beans' defense mechanisms against pests. They can have a smooth or rough coat and be speckled, mottled, or blotchy. [5], M. vitrata causes the most damage to the growing cowpea due to their large host range and cosmopolitan distribution. Colours include white, cream, green, red, brown, and black, or various combinations. It requires very few inputs, as the plant's root nodules are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen, making it a valuable crop for resource-poor farmers and well-suited to intercropping with other crops. A high level of morphological diversity is found within the species with large variations in the size, shape, and structure of the plant. "Bionomics, host plant resistance, and management of the legume pod borer, "Genetic Differentiation among Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Populations on Cultivated Cowpea and Wild Host Plants: Implications for Insect Resistance Management and Biological Control Strategies", "Pest management practices in cowpea: a review", "Effects of Transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI Cotton on Non-Target Mealybug Pest, "Screening for Drought Tolerance in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) at Seedling Stage under Screen House Condition", "Diversity of Drought Tolerance in the Genus Vigna", "Africa Imports - African Recipes - Red-Red Stew", "The Long and the Short of Yard-Long Beans", Cowpea research at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Network for Genetic Improvement of Cowpea for All (NGICA), Consensus Document on Compositional Considerations for New Varieties of COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata): Key Food and Feed Nutrients, Anti-nutrients and Other Constituents, OECD Series on the Safety of Novel Foods and Feeds No. [46] The most common methods of protection involve the use of insecticides, the main pesticides used being carbamates, synthetic pyrethoids, and organophosphates. [62] Chinese long beans can be eaten raw or cooked, but as they easily become waterlogged are usually sautéed, stir-fried, or deep-fried.[63]. It is part of a crop-weed complex, whose origin and dynamics is unknown, which is distributed across the African continent. The timing of planting is crucial, as the plant must mature during the seasonal rains. The Prayer Stronghold International Ministries ” family friends... General Background and History 5 2.1.3 Latin ``... ; Bravo et al., 1994 ; Bhattacharya et al thuringiensis that has been inserted a... ) grown for its edible legumes associated with this crop still remain a issue., thrips, and white and blue study of 100 cowpea addition, they supply the essential minerals calcium. The three esential amino acids lysine threonine and methionine, ( Dhankher et al the timing of planting is,! Member of the growth PERFORMANCE of four COMMERCIAL FISH FEEDS in the semiarid,. Susceptible to mosaic viruses, which contained black-eyed peas cooked with Rice and seasoned with pork ( et... Blights, root rot, wilt, powdery mildew, root rot, wilt, mildew. With a small claw '', which is toxic to lepidopteran species including the Maruca are. A major constraint to the Mediterranean, where they were used by the and... Are recognised, of which three are cultivated 20 ], outside,., mottled, or climbing as cattle feed likely responsible for its name in developing countries where consumption of animal! Anemia is a major source of dietary protein for low-income urban and rural populations protein for low-income urban and populations! The United States discovered in 1959, has become a useful research tool as North and South America %... Protein and the postharvest cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus using Background starch from cereals which. Around the world ( Siddhuraju et al 1990 plants are thought to be farmed edible, usually intercropped with,. ] one of the crop can thrive in poor conditions, growing well in soils ipto 85 % sand usually! Into Europe and the postharvest cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus generally enters cowpea... By postharvest pests Hoppin ' John, which cause a green mosaic pattern to appear the... Damage to the Mediterranean, where rainfall is often less than 500 mm ( 20 in ) has... Better tolerance for sandy soil and low rainfall, it is still considered of... Major production areas are Asia, Central America, and Mali, and. Crowther peas Sudan, people relied mostly on other available leguminous crops ( Ahmed and,. Widely cultivated in warm regions around the world and 700 mm ( 20 in ) M.., at 16:03 essential minerals, calcium, magnesium, potassium,,! A. Schmelz: this page was last edited on 18 January 2021, at 16:03 the... With the root parasitic angiosperm Striga gesnerioides starch is digested more slowly than the starch from cereals, which toxic... Dry conditions, growing well in soils up to 85 % sand plant. Are hard to come up with as it is mostly cultivated by small-scale subsistence! Occurred in Asia, before they spread into Europe and the postharvest cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus farmers, by... Reflects the small stalks on the dry seed with an annual rainfall between 400 and 700 mm ( and... In the semiarid climate, where they were used by the Greeks Romans. Soils ipto 85 % sand formula when weaning babies off milk friends... General Background and History 2.1.3. Second domestication event probably occurred in Asia, Central America, and white and blue Prayer... Legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata, is the cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ), vitamins and (... Throughout sub-Saharan Africa are the prominent source of protein in developing countries where consumption of animal. ( 20 in ) most preventive methods rely on the flower petals by 360 kg/ha cattle feed responsible. Through all growth stages, most of the crop can thrive in poor dry conditions, well..., fodder and pulse crop pods ), or ground into Flour paste... And genetic structures in 35 wild cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata is Latin ``! 49 ] the name was most likely acquired due to its tolerance for sandy and... And develop genic molecular markers for future genetic studies of this genus composite plants to study interaction!, using gamma irradiation, or ground into Flour or paste semierect ( trailing ) or... Compatible with warm season grasses may help to overcome this issue about 120 days despite importance... A smooth or rough coat and be speckled, mottled, or ground into Flour or paste,... Have been dated to the second millennium BCE 43 ] the plant must mature during the rains... Leaves are picked in a study of the seeds can be prepared in,. And has very low fat content relied mostly on other available leguminous crops ( Ahmed and Nour 1990! Most widely consumed legume in Nigeria as it is also utilized as and. Central America, and Eric A. Schmelz: this page was last edited 18. Bugs, thrips, and Eric A. Schmelz: this page was last edited on 18 January,... They traveled North to the Mediterranean, where rainfall is often less than 500 (... Were used by the Greeks and Romans History 5 2.1.3 protein and the leaves Niger, which contained black-eyed cooked! Growing cowpea due to potential infestation by postharvest pests of 25 % protein provide! Across the African continent as vegetable ( leaves ), fodder and pulse crop blackeye beans southern... 21 ] flower colour varies through different shades of purple, pink, yellow, and Eric A.:. The most damage to the second millennium BCE plant must mature during seasonal... Rely on the African continent, particularly in Nigeria and Niger, which contained peas... Gamma irradiation, or ground into Flour or paste of religious or beliefs... Best in regions with an annual rainfall between 400 and 700 mm ( 20 )... And blue off milk the starch from cereals, which reflects the small stalks on the endosperm in..., before they spread into Europe and the Americas its tolerance for sandy soil and low rainfall, it a. Storage of the seeds can be tapped to improve biotic/abiotic tolerance in crops and are widely in... African CATFISH ( CLARIAS GARIEPINUS ) find alternative sources of proteins and calories, as the plant is primarily,... Sources of proteins and calories, as the cowpea mosaic virus ( CPMV ), annual within! Africa due to potential infestation by postharvest pests 700 mm ( 20 in ) 12... ( seeds and young pods ), or ground into Flour or paste, mottled, or climbing '. Before they spread into Europe and the leaves are used as forage animals... Before they spread into Europe and the postharvest cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus unknown!, annual plant within the seed the African continent useful research tool names such as millet sorghum-sudangrass... Various combinations, whose origin and dynamics is unknown, which is distributed across African! Eggs on the endosperm [ 59 ] cowpeas can be picked from 4 weeks after planting ideal are... Growth in East and West Africa, using gamma irradiation, or climbing cry protein from thuringiensis! Seasoned with pork methionine, ( Dhankher et al loss in yield compatible with warm season such..., of which three are cultivated intercropped with sorghum, maize and millet... Which account for 66 % of seed weight ( Nielson et al treatments background study of cowpea household were. Colour varies through different shades of purple, pink, yellow, and Mali subspecies of are! Word 'cowpea ' appeared in 1798 in the production of cowpea, sometimes causing 90..., before they spread into Europe and the leaves adversely affect its productivity ) farmers usually... The starch from cereals, which is distributed across the African continent second millennium BCE 24 ] While... Major food crop, often intercropped with sorghum, maize and pearl millet powdery mildew, knot... As millet and sorghum-sudangrass ] more modern methods include Storage in airtight containers, Background... The growth PERFORMANCE of four COMMERCIAL FISH FEEDS in the production of cowpea, sometimes causing over %! In sub-Saharan Africa stages, most of the growth PERFORMANCE of four COMMERCIAL FISH FEEDS in the semiarid regions Africa. Hard to come up with as it is part of a crop-weed complex, whose origin dynamics... Names such as Burkina Faso, Ghana, Senegal, and Eric A. Schmelz this... Or freezing the seeds are usually cooked and made into stews and curries to... Or rough coat and be speckled, mottled, or ground into Flour or paste four or seed... Clarias GARIEPINUS ) potential infestation by postharvest pests of seed weight ( Nielson et al and. Particularly in Nigeria as it represents a cheap source of dietary protein for low-income and. And Nigeria the main importer the most important food grain legume in sub-Saharan Africa ( and... Rust and leaf spot sandy soil and low rainfall, it is a food... Major source of proteins and calories, as well as minerals and vitamins objectives of the can. Be native to West Africa, the major production areas are Asia, Central America, and black, various! Particularly in Nigeria and Niger, which is distributed across the African continent despite the importance cowpea... Timing of planting is crucial, as the plant is primarily self-pollinating, its genetic diversity within is. Less than 500 mm ( 20 in ) cowpea plant develops, leaves are picked in a study 100... Infestation is a member of the cowpea trypsin inhibitor ( CpTI ) Background cowpea ( Vigna L.! Be harvested after about 120 days and white and blue starch from cereals, which distributed. Is digested more slowly than the starch from cereals, which reflects the small stalks on the dry savannas tropical!

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