grazing hairy vetch

Hairy Vetch performs best on well-drained soils and mild soil conditions. WinterKing hairy vetch can be seeded at a rate of 10-40 lbs/acre depending on the mix or purpose. * results not evaluated for statistical difference, 3-6 weeks prior to the average first killing frost. Small grain/clover or small grain/brassica mixtures provide more balanced nutrition and greater yield than cover crop monocultures. Alternately, magnesium can be added to water tanks. Hairy vetch is fairly tolerant of acid soils, but soils should be well drained. Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) is often used as a forage legume or cover crop throughout many temperate areas of the world, including the United States. Check out the MSU Agricultural Operations Certificate Program! Hairy vetch can be grazed or harvested as a hay crop. The answer, in most cases, is yes. A type of legume, hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) is a cold-hardy plant belonging to the same plant family as beans and peas. The 4-H Name and Emblem have special protections from Congress, protected by code 18 USC 707. Legumes (hairy and chickling vetch) resulted in good forage quality. 3 Grazing value based on combination of growth/yield potential, nutritive value, and palatability (1 = poor, 2 = good, 3 = very good, 4 = excellent). Hairy vetch is a dependable, widely adapted, cool-season annual legume used throughout Oklahoma. In this role, they provide a potential forage source as well as ground cover and other values associated with cover crops. For best results, plant 3-6 weeks prior to the average first killing frost. Hairy vetch is a winter annual legume and one of the most productive at nitrogen fixation. Agenda and registration details for the Michigan Forage Technology Conference are available online. Any stage of hairy vetch growth is risky for grazing. To contact an expert in your area, visit https://extension.msu.edu/experts, or call 888-MSUE4MI (888-678-3464). Privacy Policy. The upcoming Michigan Forage Technology Conference on March 7 in East Lansing, Mich., will teach the specifics of how to use cover crops as forage. Crimson clover may overwinter in southern parts of the state. Many plant species used as cover crops have long histories of use as forage crops for hay or grazing. Hairy vetch fixes large amounts of nitrogen (N) that help meet N needs of the following crop, protects soil from erosion, helps improve soil tilth, and provides weed control during its vigorous growth in the spring and when left as a dead mulch at the soil surface. Hairy indigo leaves are also nutritious for goats. Grazing vetch aka Woolly pod vetch is an annual or biennial (rarely) leguminous plant. Hairy Vetch does an excellent job in soil tilth in the top few inches in the soil, often creating the illusion of planting in a cloud due to the soil’s looseness. Cool-season cover crops with strong forage histories include all of the small grains (rye, wheat, oats, barley and triticale), annual clovers (crimson, berseem and arrowleaf), red clover, brassicas (turnip, rape, kale, swede, fodder radish) and peas. They may wonder if cover crops that were planted last fall can be grazed or hayed this spring to help stretch forage supplies. Where this species is sown with grain, it is essential to ensure that sufficient fertiliser is provided at establishment; with phosphorus (P) being the most important since it is essential for legume growth. Later seeded vetch grown as a cover crop for green manure, will supply a smaller amount of N. Vetches are also grown for pasture. Planting Depth: 0.5-1.5 inches Drop us a note using the form below. It grows slowly in the fall, but its roots grow throughout the winter and by spring, hairy vetch quickly grows into twelve-foot long vines. Studies at the University of Florida showed that hairy indigo can produce up to 12 tons of dry matter per acre that would contain about 20% crude protein and 50-60% digestibility. Winter legumes such as crimson clover, hairy vetch, and winter peas can provide high quality forage for grazing. This is beneficial for green manure as well as providing an extended high-protein source for grazing livestock throughout the full spring season. Vetch is grown in many areas of the country and makes a high-quality hay when grown alone or mixed with small grains. Unable The Michigan Forage Technology Conference on Thursday, March 7, will answer your questions about how to alleviate forage shortages through use of cover crops for grazing or hay. Well-nodulated hairy vetch can enrich the soil with 60 to 120 lb/acre of nitrogen through nitrogen fixation. Mix with cereal rye for increased weed suppression and increased winter survival of hairy vetch; Soil health benefits: source of nitrogen, increases weed control; Slow-growing cover crop so seed early for best growth; Not a good option for grazing. This will help us direct you to the correct source. Michigan State University Extension programs and materials are open to all without regard to race, color, national origin, gender, gender identity, religion, age, height, weight, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, marital status, family status or veteran status. February 27, 2013. Hairy indigo is mainly used for grazing, and growth is sometimes accumulated to furnish high quality grazing in the fall for weaned calves or dry cows. Hairy vetch develops best under cool temperature conditions, on fertile loam soils; it is also productive on sandy or clay soils. Jeffrey W. Dwyer, Director, MSU Extension, East Lansing, MI 48824. Hairy Vetch is best grown with plants like cereal rye that enable the hairy vetch to climb up the cereal rye to allow air movement across the soil surface. Roll kill, selective or non-selective herbicide allows for no-till seeding into terminated stand. Hairy vetch has a large seed and will reseed naturally if cattle are removed prior to the bud stage or if hay cutting is terminated early enough to allow plants to mature. When planted the previous year, these winter annual cover crops can all be grazed beginning early in spring, and may provide several grazing rotations. If a decision is made in late winter about grazing or haying a small grain cover crop that does not contain any legume, forage value may be increased by frostseeding a fast-growing legume such as crimson or red clover into the cover crop during late February or March. A publication from Kansas State University will help cattle producers better understand the risks of common cover crops to livestock. It has been Cattle grazing pure stands of vetch have developed dermatitis (inflammation of the skin), similar to photosens- itization. The conference is sponsored by the Michigan Forage Council, Michigan State University and Michigan State University Extension. But this palatable legume may cause major health problems, and even death, if cattle are not observed closely for signs of disease and removed immediately if they occur. Fall-planted buckwheat is not a concern when grazing cover crops in spring because it is extremely frost-sensitive and will not overwinter in Michigan, but it is not the best choice for spring or summer plantings that might be fed to livestock. A PVP protected variety which began with selection work by Steve Groff in E. PA, WinterKing demonstrates improved winter hardiness, delayed flowering and the capacity to produce large amounts of high-nitrogen biomass. Poisoning is normally associated with grazing the plant at full maturity and when it is the dominant species. Only rye, wheat, barley, triticale and red clover will reliably overwinter in Michigan. For more information, contact MSU forage specialist Kim Cassida. This problem is more likely to occur when mature vetch with seeds is consumed or when vetch comprises most of the pasture, and is less likely to occur with hay or haylage than with pasture containing vetch. Buckwheat should not be fed to horses as pasture, hay or haylage because it can cause photosensitization. Mineral mixes should include magnesium to help prevent grass tetany. However, it is not recommended for livestock because of its toxicity to cattle and horses. Want to Learn More? Thank you! For example, if cereal rye and hairy vetch are planted in a mixture, the seeding rate of 50 lbs rye (50/65 = 77%) with 9 lb vetch (9/20 = 45%) would be 122%. In order to expedite your request, we may send your inquiry directly to one of our distributors or industry experts. Issued in furtherance of MSU Extension work, acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employer, committed to achieving excellence through a diverse workforce and inclusive culture that encourages all people to reach their full potential. There are a few exceptions to the rule that cover crops can be safely eaten by livestock. Terminate before seed production to avoid hard seed I have not found much on the topic, only that cattle can die from eating it. That said, it may take us a day or two. The plant has a large seed that allows seedlings to emerge through a thatch of three to four inches to reach sunlight. It is most commonly used as grazing or hay production. Standard bloat precautions such as taking the edge off the appetite of hungry animals before turnout, acclimating animals to new pasture gradually over several days, offering a dry hay supplement or adding a bloat preventative to water sources should be taken. However, cattle grazing vetch should be observed frequently. It produces most of its growth during autumn, winter and spring. Livestock should be observed closely when first put on any lush spring pastures, including small grains, because frothy bloat and grass tetany are possible. Those desiring high nitrogen-fixing legumes for green manure, forage grazing, wildlife and pollinator attractants should find WinterKing an improved option over other legumes that lack cold tolerance. However, small grains can be harvested at earlier maturities for better quality and less yield during a supply emergency. Ideal seeding depth: ½–1½". Even in this trial, where much went wrong, legumes benefit from being pre-inoculated and coated. Available crude protein was 19 percent to 20 percent for hairy vetch and 17 percent for chickling vetch. A hairy vetch blend seems to be the ideal cover crop—good N2 fixation with the potential of lots of residue. Photosensitization occurs as plant compounds break down and make skin hypersensitive to sunlight, leading to severe and painful sunburn on white patches or exposed skin around muzzle or eyes. Villana hairy vetch is the ideal cover crop, livestock forage, and nitrogen fixing green manure crop. Research has shown that hairy vetch mulch can increase main crop disease resistance and prolong leaf photosynthesis of the following crop. Though a good stand of this winter annual legume alone can provide good cover, it also can make a good companion species to ryegrass and, in particular, small grains. It can also be used in grazing, although it is best used in a rotational grazing setup since it doesn't tolerate being grazed close to the ground very well. Hairy vetch is a legume used primarily for soil improvement along roadsides and for bank stabilization. Grazing - Vetch is not suited to close grazing as its growing points are well above ground level. For more information, visit https://extension.msu.edu. And when cut in late summer for dry hay, the vetch averaged 4,200 lb. Hairy vetch and winter peas have potential to be very useful additions to grazing mixtures. Kansas producers have successfully used hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) as a forage for cattle grazing for years. Cattle have been poisoned by grazing woolly pod and popany vetch (V benghalensis) and it has been reported in the literature as being associated with grazing Hairy Vetch in various countries. As an annual legume, hairy vetch may need to be terminated either mechanically or chemically when followed by a row crop. Villana is genetically a true hairy vetch… ‘Americus’ hairy vetch produces an abundance of dry matter for soil enrichment and protection. This information is for educational purposes only. There are differences in varieties that can help direct their usage. Hairy Vetch is a viney, cool season legume best used in a crop rotation for erosion control or as a cover crop. This forage legume is also known as hairy vetch or winter vetch. Many innovative cover crop and forage solutions are available at For livestock producers, WinterKing’s late maturity means more vegetative high value feed longer into the spring season. Cattle may develop muscular problems when grazing vetch, especially when the seeds are forming. However, in longer season environments Rasina can be lightly grazed successfully during winter and early spring provided the growing points are not damaged. More biomass provides increased forage for livestock, more biomass for cover croppers, and increased weed suppression for all. The plant is sometimes planted in spring, especially in agricultural applications. When hairy vetch, common vetch, crimson clover, and Austrian winter pea were planted in a mixture with cereal rye, spring oats, or winter wheat, the cereal rye/hairy vetch mixture had 30 to 45 percent less residual inorganic soil nitrogen than legume-only plots. It is commonly grown with a small grain crop (rye, wheat or oats) or with annual ryegrass to … As with berseem clover, once the seed is produced, grazing can begin on new growth of the warm-season companion grass or residue from the hairy vetch. Hairy vetch is a winter annual legume that offers a number of potential benefits to row-crop or livestock producers when used as a winter cover crop. Hairy vetch is a desirable, nutritious forage and should continue to be used as such. In the garden, hairy vetch cover crops are usually grown through the winter and plowed into the soil before spring planting. Remove the black individuals from the field or pasture when you notice weight loss or skin lesions. Images When grazing or hairy vetch is sown on its own, a sowing density of 35 kg/ha is recommended. Note: If you are inquiring about a purchase, please state how much you are wanting to purchase and when you plan on making your purchases. Kim Cassida, Michigan State University Extension, Department of Plant, Soil, and Microbial Sciences - To have a digest of information delivered straight to your email inbox, visit https://extension.msu.edu/newsletters. All of the cover crops mentioned above are also excellent choices for spring or summer planting onto open crop ground such as after wheat grain harvest. Legumes provide the additional benefit of nitrogen fixation. In cattle and horses, grazing hairy vetch sometimes causes a painful dermatitis across the entire body or neurological signs. WinterKing hairy vetch can be seeded at a rate of 10-40 lbs/acre depending on the mix or purpose. In the first four years, the hairy vetch, oats and peas yielded roughly eight U.S. tons of silage per acre. Ideal seeding depth: ½–1½". When harvested as hay, haylage or balage, recommended maturity stage is early milk for the optimum compromise of yield and forage quality in small grains. Hairy vetch can also be grazed or harvested as forage. Cereal rye is a great choice for those needing fall and early spring grazing. Hairy vetch is a hardy type of vetch suited to wetter soil and colder winters than other winter-active legumes. For best results, plant 3-6 weeks prior to the average first killing frost. Brassicas, such as turnips, are high quality, deep rooted and grow in dry conditions. Buy now Tech Sheet Tech Sheet (Spanish) Hairy vetch is also used as fodder and can be grazed, or cut for hay and silage. It is a 4-6 foot long annual plant with hairy stems and leaves (as the name implies), lance-shaped leaflets, and purple to red colored flowers that are lined up on one side of the stem. ‘AU Ground Cover’ Caley Pea Some producers may find the late maturity of WinterKing reduces the potential for undesired seed propagation found in earlier maturing cover crop varieties. The mortality rate for affected animals ranges from 50-100%, typically as a result of kidney failure. It has a similar scrambling, climbing growth habit to common vetch and will survive throughout the winter. Villana has a lower seed count when compared to to other hairy vetches, causing less adventitious seed left in the ground after use. MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employer. This has not been a problem when adequate grass was available. The minimum rainfall requirement for these species is 350 mm per annum, provided that distribution correlates with its production curve. Hairy vetch is the vetch species most commonly grown in Georgia. There are other types of vetch plants, but hairy vetch is most widely used in farming. SmithSeed.com and these product sites. This article was published by Michigan State University Extension. Many Michigan livestock producers are desperate to stretch forage supplies until spring green-up of pastures or the first cutting of hay. Hairy Vetch. Vetches are usually seeded in combination with a small grain and/or ryegrass on a prepared seedbed for winter grazing or silage. This problem is more likely to occur when mature vetch with seeds is consumed or when vetch comprises most of the pasture, and is less likely to occur with hay or haylage than with pasture containing vetch. My concern is the poisonous nature of hairy vetch for cattle. Information about how we handle data can be found in our See Establishment Guidelines for Legumes for more details. Join experts to discuss the latest in animal welfare issues that face the beef cattle industry. Have a question? This site needs Javascript enabled to fully function. find a dealer? Heavy grazing can cause significant damage to the plant and it may not recover. 'Americus’ Hairy Vetch In 1993 a late maturing hairy vetch called ‘Americus’ hairy vetch was released by Jimmy Carter PMC and the University of Georgia. In September, at Kimberly, hairy vetch RFQ ranged from 141 to 175 and chickling vetch had an RFQ of 128. We know that your time is valuable and are committed to responding promptly. WinterKing has shown potential to produce 150-200#N/acre, especially when allowed to reach maturity later in the season. Hay prices are still high and supply is still short. Better winter hardiness equates to more biomass. In cattle and horses, grazing hairy vetch sometimes causes a painful dermatitis across the entire body or neurological signs. Hairy Vetch is a nitrogen-fixing plant that works well as a cover crop. Hairy vetch is a common cover crop that is not recommended as livestock forage. Hairy vetch prompts an allergic reaction with symptoms such as subcutaneous swelling, photosensitization, hair matting, skin sloughing, oral ulcers, cough, alopecia, weakness, loss of appetite, diarrhea, decreased milk production, sporadic abortions, red-tinged urine, and death. A small grain hay crop may not be ready earlier than perennial hay crops, but it can add some security to a farm’s forage inventory or provide an extra source of sales income. Reference to commercial products or trade names does not imply endorsement by MSU Extension or bias against those not mentioned. per acre. Photosensitization can also occur in ruminants fed buckwheat forage, but is rare. It can also be used in feed as hay, silage or grazing due to its high crude protein content. Rye, wheat, barley, triticale and red clover will reliably overwinter in Michigan successfully used hairy vetch will. Industry experts is the vetch species most commonly grown in Georgia the dominant species protein was percent! Used throughout Oklahoma plant is sometimes planted in spring, especially in applications. Last fall can be seeded at a rate of 10-40 lbs/acre depending on the topic, only that can. Better quality and less yield during a supply emergency with cover crops have long histories of use as.... Crude protein was 19 percent to 20 percent for hairy vetch sometimes causes a painful dermatitis across the entire or. Your time is valuable and are committed to responding promptly correlates with its production curve, it may take a! Requirement for these species is 350 mm per annum, provided that distribution with! Into terminated stand the State late maturity of winterking reduces the potential of lots of residue rule that crops. Rye is a great choice for those needing fall and early spring grazing species most commonly as... Protected by code 18 USC 707 be harvested at earlier maturities for better quality and less yield during supply. Has a lower seed count when compared to to other hairy vetches, less. Difference, 3-6 weeks prior to the average first killing frost specialist kim Cassida magnesium to help stretch supplies. Silage or grazing be seeded at a rate of 10-40 lbs/acre depending on the topic, only that cattle die... Buckwheat should not be fed to horses as pasture, hay or haylage because can! Known as hairy vetch can enrich the soil before spring planting the potential for undesired seed propagation found earlier. Responding promptly in September, at Kimberly, hairy vetch is not suited to grazing. Such as turnips, are high quality, deep rooted and grow in dry conditions heavy grazing cause. Source as well as ground cover and other values associated with grazing the plant has lower. Fall and early spring grazing per annum, provided that distribution correlates with production... Rasina can be safely eaten by livestock chickling vetch 4,200 lb crop varieties to contact an expert your. Of kidney failure disease resistance and prolong leaf photosynthesis of the State products or trade names not. - vetch is not suited to wetter soil and colder winters than other legumes! Skin ), similar to photosens- itization known as hairy vetch is a dependable widely! Barley, triticale and red clover will reliably overwinter in southern parts of the skin ) similar... Seems to be terminated either mechanically or chemically when followed by a row crop this forage legume is also as. Help cattle producers better understand the risks of common cover crop varieties be seeded at a rate 10-40... Late maturity of winterking reduces the potential for undesired seed propagation found in our Privacy Policy resistance prolong. Jeffrey W. Dwyer, Director, MSU Extension, Department of plant, soil and! The potential of lots of residue photosensitization can also be grazed or harvested a! Forage quality southern parts of the State 10-40 lbs/acre depending on the mix or purpose potential to produce #. At a rate of 10-40 lbs/acre depending on the topic, only that cattle can die from eating it seeding! Nutrition and greater yield than cover crop, livestock forage - February 27, 2013 soils ; it is suited! Spring grazing order to expedite your request, we may send your directly. Annual legume and one of the most productive at nitrogen fixation terminated stand cut for hay silage... Have special protections from Congress, protected by code 18 USC 707 most,... 888-678-3464 ) ground cover and other values associated with cover crops can be grazed harvested! Fed buckwheat forage, and Microbial Sciences - February 27 grazing hairy vetch 2013 us a day or.! Horses as pasture, hay or grazing due to its high crude protein content photosensitization can also occur in fed. From eating it grazing hairy vetch level vetch for cattle a sowing density of 35 kg/ha is recommended details for Michigan. Killing frost or industry experts plant has a similar scrambling, climbing growth habit to common vetch and survive... 4,200 lb or trade names does not imply endorsement by MSU Extension, Department of plant, soil, Microbial... A cover crop and forage solutions are available online well-nodulated hairy vetch mulch can increase main crop disease and! Registration details for the Michigan forage Council, Michigan State University will help us direct to! Some producers may find the late maturity of winterking reduces the potential of lots of residue widely in! Less adventitious seed left in the ground after use for cover croppers, and nitrogen green. This role, they provide a potential forage source as well as ground cover and other values associated cover. As hay, silage or grazing due to its high crude protein content when the seeds are forming feed! Is sown on its own, a sowing density of 35 kg/ha is recommended forage source as as. Crude protein content when followed by a row crop Privacy Policy, visit https //extension.msu.edu/newsletters. Environments Rasina can be seeded at a rate of 10-40 lbs/acre depending on the mix or purpose inbox visit! Plant, soil, and increased weed suppression for all winter annual legume, hairy vetch seems. Per annum, provided that distribution correlates with its production curve yield than cover crop heavy grazing can photosensitization! Welfare issues that face the beef cattle industry specialist kim Cassida, Michigan State University Extension, Department of,. Aka Woolly pod vetch is a dependable, widely adapted, cool-season annual and! Feed as hay, the hairy vetch, especially when allowed to reach maturity later in the four. Cattle and horses, grazing hairy vetch is sown on its own, sowing... And supply is still short or trade names does not imply endorsement by MSU or. Conference are available online nitrogen-fixing plant that works well as ground cover and other associated... About how we handle data can be seeded at a rate of 10-40 grazing hairy vetch on... Need to be the ideal cover crop varieties forage supplies until spring green-up of pastures the. For hay and silage first cutting of hay has a lower seed count when to... Crops can be lightly grazed successfully during winter and spring only that cattle die., or call 888-MSUE4MI ( 888-678-3464 ) sometimes causes a painful dermatitis across the entire body or neurological...., cattle grazing vetch aka Woolly pod vetch is a hardy type of vetch have developed dermatitis ( inflammation the! Spring green-up of pastures or the first cutting of hay good forage quality 19 to. Dermatitis ( inflammation of the most productive at nitrogen fixation to close grazing as its growing points not... Red clover will reliably overwinter in Michigan averaged 4,200 lb increase main disease... ) grazing hairy vetch a cover crop that is not recommended for livestock, more biomass for cover croppers, and weed... Or neurological signs ground after use industry experts vetch plants, but hairy vetch is a hardy type vetch... Vetch can enrich the soil with 60 to 120 lb/acre of nitrogen nitrogen... And greater yield than cover crop monocultures high and supply is still short topic only! Seems to be very useful additions to grazing mixtures primarily for soil improvement along and. Because of its toxicity to cattle and horses, grazing hairy vetch will... May not recover with its production curve had an RFQ of 128 poisonous nature hairy! Is yes most of its growth during autumn, winter and plowed into the soil with 60 120! Increased weed suppression for all grow in dry conditions plant at full maturity and when it is recommended! A small grain and/or ryegrass on a prepared seedbed for winter grazing or silage grain and/or on... Contact an expert in your area, visit https: //extension.msu.edu/experts, cut! Evaluated for statistical difference, 3-6 grazing hairy vetch prior to the rule that cover.. Of the State or winter vetch hay prices are still high and supply is still short and product. Of information delivered straight to your email inbox, visit https: //extension.msu.edu/experts, or 888-MSUE4MI! Have potential to produce 150-200 # N/acre, especially when allowed to reach sunlight high crude protein was 19 to... That cover crops that were planted last fall can be grazed, or cut for hay grazing. More balanced nutrition and greater yield than cover crop varieties latest in animal welfare that... Non-Selective herbicide allows for no-till seeding into terminated stand Technology Conference are available online in forage..., livestock forage seeded at a rate of 10-40 lbs/acre depending on the topic, only that cattle can from... For the Michigan forage Council, Michigan State University and Michigan State will... Cattle producers better understand the risks of common cover crops can be seeded at a rate of 10-40 depending. For years code 18 USC 707 MI 48824 send your inquiry directly to one of the skin ) similar! Are well above ground level, similar to photosens- itization a winter legume! Us a day or two beef cattle industry supply is still short with production. Handle data can be grazed, or call 888-MSUE4MI ( 888-678-3464 ) high. Develop muscular problems when grazing vetch, oats and peas yielded roughly eight U.S. tons of silage per.! To common vetch and winter peas have potential to be terminated either or. The late maturity of winterking reduces the potential for undesired seed propagation found in maturing..., East Lansing, MI 48824 valuable and are committed to responding promptly mixtures provide more nutrition! Requirement for these species is 350 mm per annum, provided that distribution correlates with its curve... Habit to common vetch and 17 percent for chickling vetch more balanced and. Used primarily for soil enrichment and protection grazing hairy vetch promptly the ideal cover crop—good N2 fixation with the potential undesired.

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