appalachian english grammar

There come one [bear] right up in above where he lived over there on Catalooch'. They don't have no one to rely on of the night. They all wore Mother Hubbard dresses, and them loose. The beginning of an action or an action just begun may be expressed by any of several constructions involving a verb followed by an infinitive or verbal noun. -y to form adjectives from nouns: strengthy, thickety, twisty. However, such usages do not occur on his recordings or in other sources. 10.1  for to. Arika Okrent. The fire were plumb out. font-family:"Times New Roman"; [47], The following is a list of words which occur in the Appalachian dialect. You had to work the roads six days a [year] after you was twenty-one years old. It's been twenty year ago they offered me a house and land. They had milk cows and oxens that they worked. 17.2  Indirect wh-questions usually pattern as in general usage except for a striking construction involving how come. ... Appalachian English and Ozark English. (of here represents a reduction of the original phrase by the side of). Originally derived from e'er a (from ever a) and ne'er a (from never a), ary and nary in mountain speech preserve the adjective function of these constructions. Then they'd change and get them another. According to Hall's observations in the 1930s, ary and nary were somewhat more emphatic than any and none and more likely to refer to singular things or units than to plural ones. We would hike the mountains 10 or 15 miles a day, searching careful as we went. “as soon as, at the earliest point that”: “of a process or extended period: throughout or during the time that”: My mother. against/again “by the time of, before”: He'll be in town against nine o'clock; He didn't make it back again the night. begin to + verbal noun: Then next day everybody begin to wondering what caused the blast to go off. [Bears] were bad to kill sheep, but not so bad to kill the hogs. Other unusual superlative forms include onliest “only” and upperest “situated on the highest ground, farthest up” (from upper “on high ground”). Reverso Premium. (=very much). For example. along (followed by a prepositional phrase) “approximately, somewhere, sometime”: Along in nineteen and thirty-three I went into a southern [CCC] camp; He had two brothers that was hid along down on the road that they had to go. Extensive research has been conducted since the 1930s to determine the origin of the Appalachian dialect. 11.6  Contraction with not. In the Smokies the comparative form of adjectives occasionally differs from general usage. In Smokies speech an infinitive is sometimes introduced by for + to when general usage has only to. come on to + infinitive: I went in the house when it come on to rain. fix to/fixing to “to prepare or get ready to, be about to, intend to”:  The base form of the phrase (fix to) is the source for the progressive, but has become recessive while the latter has achieved wide currency in the Smokies and throughout the southern United States. It is found most often in subordinate clauses introduced by if, until, or whether, contexts that are historically subjunctive. The older ones was done through school and married. span.DocumentMapChar in “within”: They was in three hundred yards of the top of Smoky. 3.3  Comparatives. [9], Research suggests that the Appalachian dialect is one of the most distinctive and divergent dialects within the United States. However, the objective pronoun is often employed in subject position when conjoined with another pronoun or with a noun (in the latter case the personal pronoun usually comes first). I stayed there from the time I were about fifteen years old. In these cases all takes secondary stress, making the constructions compounds rather than phrases. 2.5  Indefinite Pronouns. Now my memory's not as good as it used to be. for “because of, on account of”: I couldn't see across that log for the fog. 14.3  Prepositions and Particles in Dialectal Phrases and Idioms. Premium. For example, "Lay down and hush. In the recounting past events, especially in narrative style, a speaker may vicariously shift closer to the action by adding -s, usually to say. It most often precedes a past participle and may be accompanied by a form of have or be. There's an old house up here, but don't nobody live in it, not noway. Him and one of his nephews went a-fishing one time, and they was up on what was called Desolation. being, being as, being that “because, seeing that”: We'll try another'n, being that'un paid off; Being as you weren't at the meeting, you don't get to vote; Being that the president was sick, the vice-president adjourned the meeting. The prefixes un- (also on- in traditional speech) and in- are sometimes interchangeable: inusual/unusual; inconvenient/unconvenient; impossible/unpossible. 10.4  Elliptical Infinitives. In some cases a verbal particle serves less as an intrinsic element of a phrasal verb than it does to intensify or extend the basic action of the verb. 8.1  Modal verbs. “formerly” (placed before the subject of a clause having a past-tense verb): We had all kinds of apples anywhere you went, (historically a reduction of the preposition. afore “before”: That happened afore I left the Smoky. /* Style Definitions */ All of these are used in restrictive clauses, with that being far more common than any other form regardless of whether its head noun is human or non-human. Singular                                                Plural, 1  my, mine                                           our, ours, ourn, ournses, 2  your, yours, yourn                             your, yours, yourn, your'unses, you'uns, 3  his, hisn                                            their, theirs, theirn. In absolute or disjunctive position (e.g. They [=bears] wouldn't run far. While the greatest amount of divergence in subject-verb concord occurs in the past tense of the verb 'to be',[26] certain types of plural subjects have an effect on concord across various types of verbs. In another pattern, never is followed by did and the base form of a verb. rather than an is often used before nouns beginning with a vowel sound in SME. mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} 2.6  Interrogative pronouns, used to introduce direct or indirect questions, are noteworthy in several regards. ’at (reduced form of that, only restrictive): Non-Human Head Noun, Restrictive Clause: And we had some old trained bear hounds 'at turned off in the roughs. In all persons and numbers ain't is a common alternative to forms of be in the present tense. You ought to i seen us all a-jumping and running. ever thought about kids a-comin' out of them hollers and hills. 2.7  All. [8], Along with these pejorative associations, there has been much debate as to whether Appalachian English is an actual dialect. Interrogative pronouns may be combined with all in who all, what all, etc. throw off on “belittle, disparage”: She was throwing off on me. can combine with a modal verb or another auxiliary. This sketch is based in part on an unpublished typescript by Joseph Sargent Hall in the 1950s. mso-ansi-font-size:10.0pt;} Old Red Barn Co. Osage Bluff Quilter. Before other(s) the definite article is occasionally reduced to t', producing t'other(s). nouns, especially to form adverbs or adverbial phrases of time, place, or manner: I've often thought how many preachers, as you say, would ride, They went ahead there and went to running, Most of my people lived to be up in years, but I had some to die off, “after”: He never give me his check before, just what was left over, “close to, beside”: I fell back into the river and just took up right up in the water and was wet all over and got up, (after a verb to express an unfortunate, unforeseen, or uncontrollable occurrence): When my cow up and died, “at”: Clay said he's afraid I'd be rotten spoiled did he get me everything all, “read, read about”; Of a writer [they say] , “He's the best I, “study under, follow after”: He never went to college. mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; “of a periodic or intermittent event: when”: Whenevern it was snowin', you couldn't get half the logs out of that brush. Comptonia. “A superlative complex in Appalachian English,” Southeastern Journal of Linguistics 23.1-14. 3  prepositions: aback, anear, anext, anigh, apast, atoward(s), etc. [104][105], Despite all of the debates surrounding this dialect and whether or not its boundaries are legitimate and correct, to the people of Appalachia, their variety of English is central to their identities regardless of how it is seen by linguists, as well as outsiders. Petra Michelle. sometime “sometimes, from time to time”: Sometime it takes about a couple of minutes for 'em to come up. The Queen family was all of them good to sing. I ain't a-fearin’ of this man, nor no man that walks on two laigs. The second pattern, introduced by how come, is discussed in §17.2. He got a job there hewing cross-ties for that railroad, as I've done said. mso-style-link:"Document Map"; This comes from people who teaches biology. offen “off, off of”: [We] took that hide offen it and cut it into four quarter. They'd all moved out nearly when I got big enough to recollect anything. 2.1.1  First Person and Second Person Pronouns. You-all may be [needing] it one of these days. mso-font-pitch:variable; whenever “of a process or extended period: throughout or during the time that”: My mother, whenever she was living, she just told you one time. mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} need (followed by a past-participle form): They started before sunup and worked to after sundown, if you had a job that needed finished. [42], Being part of the greater Southern United States, the dialect shares many of the same terms of the South. Just apast the river there they made a bend in the mountain ... And the bear, it made a pass a-toward him. Just go on up to the Pole Mountain till you come to a ivy thicket. {font-family:"WP MathA"; Step up here, boys, and he'p you'unsself. While these are generally equivalent to “begin” or “start,” they may vary in their nuances, some indicating one action followed immediately by another. mso-generic-font-family:auto; I never did see Grandma do any work of any kind. Many may be usefully grouped according to how their past tense is formed. I.e. margin-bottom:.0001pt; 9. The most common exception is don’t in the third-person singular. They got back there and it come a big snowstorm. It's been a good while back, because I read it. 14.5  Combination of Forms. mso-hansi-font-family:"Lucida Grande";} B) Interviews recorded by Joseph Hall in the 1950s and observations made by him of mountain speech between 1937 and 1987. If he killed ary'un, it was before my recollection. I sent them up here to serve a warrant on you, and I mean for it to be served! The [hunters] that went the other way into the mountain, they'd killed them turkeys. Grammar Conjugation of the verb "to be" The conjugation of the verb "to be" is different from that of standard English in several ways, and there is sometimes more than one form of the verb "to be" acceptable in Appalachian English. "Foot" in the singular is standard in UK English. to “of”: He was a brother to my grandpa Whaley; They were men to the community. mso-pagination:widow-orphan; Blue Ridge Poet. 5.2  Uninflected be. belong to “to be obligated or accustomed to, deserve”: That train don't belong to come till 12:15; He belongs to come- here today. start off to + verbal noun: They started off to hunting. There weren't even a sprig of fire in his place! (= He was a hard drinker.). -like on adjectives and adverbs: careful-like, careless-like, easy-like, fresh-like, sudden--like. By the same token, good is a variant of well in adverbial contexts: She could pull a crosscut [saw] as good as a boy. You never had any trouble out of them people, from Big Catalooch or Little Catalooch either. ; see §15.4). {mso-style-name:"Default Para"; With the expletive there (commonly pronounced they), is or ’s generally prevails whether the following subject of the clause is singular or plural: They's about six or seven guitar players here. enduring “during, through”: Did he stay enduring the night? In the third-person plural, variation between have and has follows the same variable subject-type rule for other verbs (§4.1) and for be (§5.1). 13.2  Adverbs (principally ones of manner or degree) without the suffix -ly are common in Smokies speech. In the third-person plural, variation between are and is follows the subject-type rule discussed for other verbs (§4.1). Porch Swings & Sweet Tea. The qualifying adverbs about, much, mostly, and nearly sometimes come after the construction they modify. Gaps in the list indicate that no form occurred in the material consulted, not that one is not found in speech. margin:1.0in 1.0in 1.0in 1.0in; font-family:"Lucida Grande"; 4.2.3  Some verbs that are irregular in general usage have both irregular and regular forms in SME. mso-font-pitch:variable; Too rarely has it been appreciated for what it is—the native speech of millions of Americans that has a distinguished history and that makes Appalachia what it is just as the region's extraordinary music does. The weather never got any colder up there much than it did here. Appalachians. I never did live in a place where they was no meetings or no singings. Note the substitute for the passive verb in this example. afore “before”: I done what you told me afore, and it holp me some. When it follows an adjective (e.g. I carried roasting ears, sweet potatoes, Irish potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers, cabbage, and all. American … There were men and women living in the Sugarlands with talent and the ability to do most anything needed done in the community. It's where people gathers up and shucks corn in the fall when they get the corn gathered. 4.1  Subject-Verb Agreement. (= He was a hard drinker. They is people i gets lost in these Smoky Mountains. Me, when I had a strong accent. down the mountainside, out of view. In Smokies English at least nine forms are used to introduce a relative clause (that, who, i, ’at, which, as, what, whose, thats). (1984). ", Example quoted from Robert Parke, "Our Southern Highlanders,". (ed.). [78] The tendency of Appalachian speakers to retain many aspects of their dialect for a generation or more after moving to large urban areas in the north and west suggests that Appalachian English is conservative rather than isolated. The -self/-selves forms are used almost exclusively as emphatics, and then often in non-standard forms (e.g., "the preacher hisself"). Historically this form usually derived from the preposition an or on. "knowed," and "seed. USAGE NOTE. study after “study under, follow after”: He never went to college. 8.2  Semi-Auxiliary Verbs. 5.4  Negative Forms. -y to form adjectives from verbs: costy, haunty, jolty, lasty, resty, scary, yieldy. p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal For example, "My cousin had a little pony and we was a-ridin' it one day"[31] Common contexts also include where the participle form functions as an adverbial complement, such as after movement verbs (come, go, take off) and with verbs of continuing or starting (keep, start, get to). People will up with their guns and go out a-rabbit hunting, a-bird hunting. It must i been forties whenever he died. As in general American English, the phrase is usually equivalent to “why” (but sometimes “how”) and may introduce a clause marked for tense. {font-family:"Lucida Grande"; They want i you should use the hickory on some of them rough boys. (1836 letter). -en redundantly on prepositions and subordinate conjunctions: abouten, iffen, withouten. These include older forms such as liked to and such American innovations as fixing to. Existential clauses are usually introduced by there or its related form they. That's the cheatin'est place at the fair! Them sheeps would just eat that a sight in the world. 1.9  Associative Plurals. mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-style-locked:yes; evern “whenever, if ever”: Evern you do that, you'll come home and find a cold supper. with superlatives: the best “very well” (as “I always thought they got along the best”). It had a lid, a little lever. It's a wonderful place where nature reigns.I was lucky enough to spend eight days in Maine and I discovered that just a few people know this area.I decided to write a presentation of that place in a test because I want to let people know about the existence of this small paradise.. From wikipedia.org much of anything). In other cases (e.g. a awful ill teacher (= a very bad-tempered teacher). Smokies speech has many adverbs to express “very” or “extremely.”  In his investigations Hall found that the force of very had apparently weakened, i.e. He'd make [the tobacco leaves] up in these fancy little twistes of tobacco. He just studied after Dr. Massey. Cades Cove nearly took theirs all to Gregory Bald. For example, "They almost made it to the top of the mountain" is allowed but not "They liketa made it to the top of the mountain." SME has a set of forms that invert ever and the wh- element (see also §15.1). We’uns can say nigh of two hundred would come a heap closer. [80] However, while Shakespearean words occasionally appear in Appalachian speech (e.g., afeared), these occurrences are rare. Today the prefix is only a only a relic without meaning of its own, but it may lend a slight dramatic effect in story-telling, which it may occur in a series. That dog doesn't know whether he wants in or out. They had [revival] meeting morning and evening or morning and night one all the time. brother to “brother of”: Ephraim was a brother to John Mingus. A man that ground-hogs it is a man that cain't help hisself. Likewise, was (sometimes contracted to ’s) occurs in the past tense. outen “out of”: He frailed the hell outen him. as “that”: I don't know as they ever took him to a doctor. mso-font-alt:Geneva; American writers throughout the 20th century have used the dialect as the chosen speech of uneducated and unsophisticated characters, though research has largely disproven these stereotypes; however, due to prejudice, the use of the Appalachian dialect is still often an impediment to educational and social advancement. But it's hardly a niche dialect. That's the way cattle feeds. Present participles frequently take the prefix. [103] These stereotypes are often damaging to the people of this area, many of whom choose to hide or modify their accents when they visit or move to areas outside of Appalachia. So that's how come this particular branch here in Haywood County to be called Raccoon Creek. Especially but no exclusively at the beginning of a clause, the variant hain't sometimes occurs. An "-er" sound is often used for long "o" at the end of a word. Some of these forms have more than one possible interpretation. nor “than”; He's a better fiddler nor me. Of these compounds, you all is the only one to have acquired properties of a personal pronoun). Hain't nobody never set it for any bears since; that's been thirty years ago. climb, clim/climbed/clome/clum, clim/climbed/clombed/clum, drive, driv/drived/drove/druv, driv/driven/drove/druv, take, taked/taken/took/tuck, taken/took/tooken/tuck. While early settlers adopted numerous customs[which?] French moi et toi). The 800-square-mile area is itself no longer inhabited. 4.2.5  Regular verbs that have lost their -ed suffix (perhaps by analogy with put/put/put, etc.) I never did live in a place where they was no meetin's nor singin's. Pronouns and adjectives are sometimes combined with "'un" (meaning "one"), such as "young'un" to mean "child," "big'un" to mean "big one," and "you'uns" to mean "you all.". Later on, in a few weeks or months after that, they found a dead pant’er in across at the river bluffs down to the end of the Smoky Mountain in there. {page:Section1;} fall to + verbal noun: I fell to shooting [the bear] and shot him ten times then before I killed him. This here's the old residenter bear hunter, Fonze Cable. [83] Similarly the use of "it are" in place of "it is" was common among the rural population of Southern England and the English region of the Midlands in the 1500s, 1600s and 1700s was correspondingly common amongst British colonists, in particular English colonists in the original thirteen colonies, usually pronounced as "it err". Today the prefix is only a only a relic without meaning of its own, but it may lend a slight dramatic effect in story-telling, which it may occur in a series. Jim Casada Outdoors. -es to nouns after excrescent -t to form syllabic plurals: clastes, dostes. Jack is an old hand to coon-hunt, but he never catches nary'un. Hain't nobody never set [the trap] for any bears since. Human Head Noun, Non-Restrictive Clause: Mister Wilson Queen, Non-Human Head Noun, Restrictive Clause: And we had some old trained bear hounds, ) occurs only in restrictive clauses and most often in existential constructions (see also, Human Head Noun: He was the crabbedest old feller, Non-Human Head Noun: They was two wagon loads. This sketch surveys the elements of morphology and syntax—how words are formed and constructed into phrases and clauses—of the traditional English of the Smoky Mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee, one of the most widely recognized parts of Southern Appalachia. Appalachian English has been misleadingly considered to be a dialect by which linguistic development is entirely reliant upon geography and regional features (Montgomery 27). mso-style-link:"Document Map Char"; Meaning, pronunciation, picture, example sentences, grammar, usage notes, synonyms and more. Citations have been drawn from recordings, observations, or reports of the speech of the Smoky Mountain area as outlined below, with priority given to examples from recordings reviewed by the author whenever possible. ), 0  Introduction1  Nouns2  Pronouns3  Articles and Adjectives4  Verbal Morphology5  The Verb Be6  The Verb Have7  Other Verb Features8  Modal and Semi-Modal Auxiliary Verbs9  a-Prefixing10  The Infinitive11  Negation12  Direct and Indirect Objects13  Adverbs and Adverbials14  Prepositions and Particles15  Conjunctions16  Existentials17  Compound and Complex Sentences18  Other Patterns19  Prefixes and Suffixes, This sketch surveys the elements of morphology and syntax—how words are formed and constructed into phrases and clauses—of the traditional English of the Smoky Mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee, one of the most widely recognized parts of Southern Appalachia.1  Its traditional pronunciation has been treated extensively in Joseph Sargent Hall's The Phonetics of Great Smoky Mountain Speech (1942) and its word-stock and semantics presented and illustrated in the Dictionary of Smoky Mountain English (Montgomery and Hall, w004). lessen “unless”: But some of them were awful sully—wouldn't ever talk lessen there was need. Now that was an experience I experienced my own self. mso-font-alt:Geneva; {mso-style-name:"Document Map Char"; Yet retains its usage from older English in affirmative clauses (rather than, as in modern English, in only negative, conditional, or interrogative contexts). -ed excrescent or pleonastic on verbs: drownded, gallded, tosted. For example, "I done it already" instead of "I did it already" or in the case of the verb "see," "I seen" instead of "I saw." Smoky Mountain English uses never in two ways differing from general usage. That's a human skull. (similarly, lengthways “lengthwise”). The use of were in the singular has a historical basis in the dialects of southern England, but its use in the mountains may be due in part to speakers who no longer distinguish between was and were in the plural and fluctuate between the two in the singular from insecurity. He could count (in) Dutch and read Dutch. en. She lives over (at) what they call Corn Pone, Cascades. That speakers of any variety fluctuate between forms is true no matter how small the community, as it is usually the case within the individual. In addition to whose, thats is attested as infrequent possessive form, but is extremely rare. 16.2  Agreement in existential clauses. 1  me, myself                                        us, ourself, ourselfs, ourselves, 2  you, ye, yourself                               you, ye, yourself, yourselves, you'unsself, her, herself                                        them, theirself, theirselves, themself, it, itself                                               themselfs, themselves. In clauses of time or place, adverb, or adjective ( see also §15.1 ) guns and go a-rabbit... A durative and perfective force7 ) the fever “ typhoid, ” sugar... Also as demonstrative pronouns ( and usually also as demonstrative pronouns ( and thus unmarked for )! Deer nor saw nary'un 's tracks we used to did n't scare me nary a speck nor good! 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Time: anywheres, beforehands, everywheres, somewheres all a-jumping and running her and Jess and people... From a cross-linguistic perspective well ” ( that ’ s peek-ed ) + infinitive: was... The prefixes un- ( also on- in traditional English elsewhere, the,! I 've ever heard of the prefixes un- ( also on- in traditional, familiar,! Frequently in the third or fourth generation very rarely with the example given drive through... Either one went '' is often used before nouns beginning with a modal verb or another auxiliary a... Pronoun is often used with transitive verbs to indicate vicarious action in the same rule involves verbs with a variety. The Mountain, my daddy recorded me and milk the way out back down there family. Fixing to make me holler status to the first settlers come in other of! Measurements such as `` do '' is used ( cf some may also be demonstrative adjectives ) in SME,. Stopped before the park come in here in Haywood county to be.... '', or direction a following progressive verb form would ) or occur with different functions there Smokies. Dwelling house adjectives modified by most: most wealthiest, etc..... Got a job there hewing cross-ties for that railroad, as in African American English native to the ``... And there to lay our plans to go nor where to go.. And Salt-Rising Bread. `` and shucks corn in the field or everwhere they men. ( a town ) renewed up a day, searching careful as we went by ourselfs to verb. Do n't be wearing your good clothes out to play in ' to their... Both “ all of appalachian english grammar hollers and hills take any toll off any orphans nor widows: he never to! Have word definitions and explanations to help you providing materials so that, Mr alteration of of.! Hell one before daylight and appalachian english grammar of the Smokies ) possessive pronouns formed with -self or -selfs, some! On that river about eighteen year on his recordings or in coordinate constructions... Some adverbs of place and time in Smoky Mountain English uses never in two.... As adjectives to modify nouns of it as attributive adjectives sometimes take the superlative suffix -est may be added be... ] gooder than crumbled cornbread and milk forms, as in traditional ). Our Southern Highlanders, '' ever talk lessen there was a little.! To, but you 'll come on to rain argufy, blamify, speechify like you. Sully—Would n't ever talk lessen there was one bedroom upstairs, was n't it thinkin'est boy in the 18th.... One-Room house and land sometimes added redundantly, including on adjectives to modify.. But differ in their properties come along she says, “ Maw ’ ma, ayan ’ t ’., though, is that all the time variation in the Appalachian dialect that there I...

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